see doc/lostCities.txt for things outside the norm.
6-7 million yrs. ~20 early species of genus homo. bipedal, small teeth (not for fighting)
related to chimps.
2.8 M.Y. "1st humans". fire, big brain, stone tools, hunted, could travel. left africa
homo erectus lasted 2 million years.
-300000 small groups. buried their dead. cultures. simple language(s)
-200000 5-6 species of homo
-70000 probably modern human (abstract thought, language). cooperation.
expanded knowledge quickly thru language. passed on next gen.
still one animal among many. survival specialists. rich social life
-50000 innovation explosion. tools complex. language. brains larger than ours
-30000 late paleolithic in Egypt. stone tools, Nile.
-12000 agriculture. predictable food source. knowledge exchange.
rely on skills of others. specialization.
-10000 end Paleolithic, start Mesolithic.Neolithic 40% died b4 age 15. survivors could get to 54y.o.
-10000 genus homo only has species 'homo sapiens sapiens'. others had died off
-3600 Egypt. crops along Nile, domestication of animals. sun-dried bricks.
-3500 Sumer. Mesopotamia. slavery. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_slavery
-3300 Iceman, "Otzi", died. found in 1991. Brittanica
-3200 meteoric iron shaped. Bronze age starts. life expectancy 26 yrs
-3000 early dynasic period Egypt. 'two lands', N,S, unify. art, architecture, religion, ~math
-2400 Egypt starts using papyrus as paper
-2300 Babylon founded. small town
-2000 end Neolithic Age (new Stone Age). farming, metals wikip
-1900~ Egyptian fractions, wiki. not like ours...
-1894 Babylon small city-state. Chaldea was an area SE of Babylon, captured by Bab.
-1840 Hammurabi prospered. built small empire. codified laws. Babylon the center.
-1900–1600 BCE, Plimpton 322 tablet, which gives a table of Pythagorean-like
triples and represents some of the most advanced mathematics prior
to Greek mathematics not interested in exact solutions but approximations,
and so they would commonly use linear interpolation to approximate
intermediate values quadratic and cubic equations multiply both sides of
an equation by like quantities so as to eliminate fractions and factors
-1750 Hammurabi dies; son begins to screw it up.
-1770-1670 Babylon was the largest city in the world from c. cuneiform tablets. 200k
-1700 tables of solutions in clay. 'triplets' (?) not symbolic
?-1642 to -1540 sometime in this interval, volcano Thera blew up. Minoans. Santorini, Greece
14 cu miles of material launched!
-1550~ "Battle of Jerico. Israelites marching north to promised land." Took no prisoners.
However, almost all archeologists agree the Exodus and this battle are
only stories sourced from the trailing end of horses. wikip
-1180 bronze age end, start iron age. near Anatolia.(~turkey), islands...
"greek dark ages". pottery simpler.
supposed cause: Sea Peoples, wiki
[ Bronze Age Collapse, wiki 1200-1150. saw youtube video also ]
Within a period of forty to fifty years at the end of the thirteenth and
the beginning of the twelfth century almost every significant city in the
eastern Mediterranean world was destroyed, many of them never to be occupied again. ]
-900 end of 'Sea Peoples', a confederacy of pirates, invading mediterranean sea coast.
-800 re-emergence of sizeable, civilized towns, cities, arts.
-786 root of C Fagan's star positions for astrology. wiki/Sidereal_and_tropical_astrology
-??? Babylonian 'Chaldean' measurements of star positions (later used by Hipparchus)
-776 greek archaic period (til 480BC). sudden population rise, started olympics, alphabet,
Athens democracy, Sparta oligarchy. missing detailed historical record.
"traditions" (stories) formed here later written up by Herodotus.
-609-539 Babylon rebuilt by the Assyrians. became the capital of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.
Hanging Gardens. Babylon was the largest city in the world from c. 612 to 320 BC
-605 Babylon Captivity. captive jews taught religion, construction, math
-600 end Iron Age (varied by location). start of history, Classical Period for Greece
-600 Thales of Miletus, who is credited by Aristotle, two centuries later, as laying the foundations
of the physical sciences in Ionia (east of Greece). Described nature w/o supernatural influence.
Bertrand Russel called him the '1st western philosopher'. 1st of the "Seven Sages".
wikip Thales theorem
observed static electricity, magnetite
Thales traveled to Babylon and Alexandria.
-550 Persia rises as major power.
-540 Pythagoras. Ionian. theorem. writer. philosopher==lover of wisdom. learned geometry in Egypt(?).
Pythagorians acted like a religion
Pythagoras traveled to Babylon and Alexandria.
-539 jews released fm Babylon. carry building techniques home. wiki Babylon
-537 jews begin construction of the second temple in jerusalem.
-500 Ionian Revolt. wikip
-480 2nd Persian invasion. Greek Classical period starts.
-476-446 'thirty year peace' between Athens and Sparta. wikip
-431-421 Peloponnesian War, sparta vs athens. Athens power diminished; Sparta's raised
-430 smallpox plague of Athens.
-400 Socrates->Plato's Academy in Athens->Aristotle // mnemonic on ordering S-P-A
-384 Aristotle born in Macedonia
-350 Aristotle earth centric;
5 elements: earth,wind,air,fire, and ____
Aether, which is the divine substance that makes up the heavenly spheres and heavenly bodies
Virtually adopted (later) as church dogma.
-343 Aristotle starts tutoring Alexander the great.
-331 Alexander the Great's takes Babylon
-323 Alexander the Great dies. End of Greek's Classic Age, start 'Archaic Period'
-323 Euclid (of Alexandria)'s started time (w/ Ptolemy)
Elements, geometry, axiomatic method, number theory. rigor
Euclid wrote several (13?) books. geometric algebra is covered in Euclid's Elements.
-307 Greek Epicurus fights superstition. Advises "live pleasureably". School "Garden"
-300 "third century BC". Parchment replaces papyrus.
-300 1st chinese math doc
-287 Archimedes, awesome 'Maker'. solar reflectors, catapults, math using geometric algebra
-283 Euclid's time (w/ Ptolemy) in Alexandria ends (?)
-250 most influential chinese math book, "The nine chapter on the mathematical art", 246 problems
-212 Archimedes killed by a Roman soldier, 75 yrs old
-129 Hipparchus made a star catalog from notes made by Chaldeans. H in Rhodes at the time(?).
Differences in star positions allowed him to argue that the earth's spin was wobbling
("precession of the equinoxes" Brittanica.
-106-43 Cicero. writings helped start Renaissance, Enlightenment. killed by Roman soldier
-31 final battle (Actium) of the Roman Republic; Start Roman Empire
-30 Romans capture Alexandria.
life expectancy: if child lived to 10y.o. s/he, on average, could live to 47
100 paper invented in China.
+100ish "(2nd century), muslim scientists begin testing consequences of assertions". Europeans adopted practice in 16th,17th
~120 Ptolemy's epicycle model to support Aristotle's
earth-centered solar system. translucent shells.
listed positions of 1025 stars wikip
'Almagest'. star pos used by Halley 1718 to learn that Sirius and Arcturus had moved !
165-180 smallpox plague. dunno where.
250-270+ smallpox plague ('of Cyprian') weakens Roman empire. 266 5000deaths/day in Rome
325 1st council of Nicea, Constantine I //2nd in 787
354-430 St Augustine. "reads w/o speaking!". algerian bishop, Hippo
375 beginning of the Migration Period (barbarians). see wikip's ./migrationPeriod.png
or the full wikip article
387 gauls (Senones) sacked Rome after a land dispute on Adriatic coast.
405 Hypatia, 1st woman math/astronomer, killed by religious mob. Marks end of Alexandria's prominence
410 visigoths sack Rome.
455 vandals sack Rome.
476 common date given for the fall of the Roman Empire
535-536 Extreme cold, wikip
541 plague of Justinian.
618 Chinese invent ice cream.
672 Greek Fire, a napalm like weapon, invented.
750 Islamic Golden Age. scientists. naming stars, the root words for algebra. algorithm
morphed trigonometry into its modern form. ptolemy's book translated from latin to arabic
star names, arabic numerals, zero, algebra.
life expectancy: 35+, scholars 59-84. dif in Spain
830 1st book on true algebra, "The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing"
solutions to linear and quadratic eqns.
885 Vikings invade Paris. terror-based warfare.
900- Chinese invent gunpowder
900 drought in central america decimates Maya.
1001 Vikings, Vinland settlement in N America. Leif Eriksson.
1066 Halley's comet, Norman conquest of England.
1100 The Intellectual Collapse of Islam, Neil de Grasson
(Imam) Hamid al-Ghazali "math is the work of the devil". revelation replaced investigation.
1100 Islam takes a religious turn. "math the work of the devil".
1100's wikip muslim conquests. crusades
middle east muslim, not pakastani etc.
1104 Arsenal of Venice founded. 16k people mass produced sailing ships in large assembly lines
1111 Henry V becomes Holy Roman Emperor
1145 2nd crusade
1150 smelting of iron. tech fm china. used in sweden.
1170 Purgatory defined; Thomas Becket murdered
1185 1st windmills
1191 Saladin defeated by Richard I of England
1193 first merchant guild established.
1200's wikip crusades 4-9
1202 book "Liber Abaci", Fibonacci
1203 Siege of Constantinople. Greek Fire conspicuously absent. secret lost (?)
1204 4th crusade. sack of Constantinople
1204 fall of Normandy. ends Norman rule of france
1206 Ghengis Khan declared great by Mongols. 'Make Mongols Great Again'
1215 Magna Carta
1221 Venice trades w/ Mongols
1223 Republic of Venice formed
1250 "in 13th century China's paper introduced to europe". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paper#History
1258 Baghdad destroyed by Mongols, concludes the Caliphate
1265 Thomas Aquinas begins to write his Summa Theologiae.
1271 start 9th crusade
1300 Marco Polo. Silk Road. Venice. book released. "Travels of Marco Polo"
1315-1317 Great Famine, rains. millions died.
~1320 William of Occam. franciscan friar. writer.
life expectancy: if 21 yo, then 64 avg. England: plague altered avg
1345 Petrarch, humanist, names 'Dark Ages', urges study of 'classics'. Renaissance.
heavily influenced by Cicero.
start of a period "Ionian Enchantment". ref: book "why E MC2", loc 1010 kindle.
1347-1351 smallpox plague. killed 200mil. europe
1362 Petrach's family fleeing plague. around (republic of) Venice. he retired to Padua
1450 Gutenberg printing press, Mainz Germany. many functioning by 1500
1453 Fall of Constantinople pushed Greek scholars west, bringing ancient Greek manuscripts
1490 da Vinci active. Florence. Medici supported art. 'Renaissance Man'
1496 New Spain established settlements in Hispaniola. ,colonizn
1500 200 printing presses across europe had printed more than 20M volumes.
1500 Venezuela, New Spain established settlement,colonizn
1504 conjunction. observed by Copernicus who wrote that "Mars surpasses
the numbers by more than two degrees. Saturn is surpassed by the
numbers by one and a half degrees." (NOTE: _checking_consequences_)
Copernicus tried circular orbits but noted smaller errors remained (ellipses)
1513 Machiavelli published 'The Prince', Florence. wikip
1513 Spanish founded Spanish Florida , ,colonizn
1517 start protestant reformation; humanism a factor; ended after 30years war, 1648
1519 Spanish founded St John´s, Newfoundland as a big market for fish ,colonizn
1520 Veracruz, New Spain established settlement,colonizn
1530 Bogota, New Spain established settlement,colonizn
1534 French New France (Canada), traded with Beaver and furs.,colonizn
1535 Mexico City, New Spain established settlement,colonizn
1536 Buenos Aires and Asuncion, New Spain established settlements,colonizn
1542 Lima, Peru and Chile. New Spain established settlements,colonizn
1542 Spanish found Alta California,colonizn
1543 Copernicus releases "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres"
on the day he died. It describes a heliocentric solar system, contrary to church teachings.
1550 ?start of world wide glaciation advance. Wiki Little_Ice_Age
1559 Spanish settled Pensacola 1559. ,colonizn
1564 Galileo born.
1570 Spanish trading chocolate from Mexico and tobacco from Santo Domingo.,colonizn
1571 Kepler born. near Stuttgart, Black Forest. grandson of town mayor, father mercenary
1577 Great Comet. witnessed by Kepler
1582 Gregorian calendar (?). Jesuit
1583 St John´s, Newfoundland became the first English American colony ,colonizn
1590 Napier's work on logarithms known by Brahe. "1590's"
1594 Kepler math teacher. Copernican. part time astrologer.
1595 Kepler finds geometric solids pattern which approxs planetary periods. later rejects it
1596 Kepler receives permission to publish Mysterium Cosmographicum w/o bible refs.
1596 and MC had shed epicycles etc used by Copernicus. Kepler poor (artist(?))
1596 toilet invented by John Harington (but widespread use in late 19th cent)
1597 Galileosupports Copernicus. Escapes death.
1600 Inquisition burns Giordano Bruno at the stake. Dominican friar, philosopher,
1600 mathematician and astronomer. Over heliocentrism and an elaboration of Copernicus' theories.
1600 Gilbert's 'De Magnete' raises magnetism to a science.
1601 Tycho Brahe dies (oct). Kepler takes over.
1605 Kepler determines planets move in ellipses. further supports heliocentrism.(NOTE: _checking_consequences_)
1607 Jamestown, Virginia was the first permanent English settlement, 100 men,colonizn
1608 French Quebec ,colonizn
1610 Galileo. moons of Jupiter. writes Kepler for recommendation. JK borrows 'scope.
1614 Napier publishes 57pg book, tables of natural logs, spherical trig.
1616 catholic furor and debates over heliocentrism.
1618 start of 30 years war. mostly in N. europe. italy stayed catholic. 8 mil died,
1618 some from plague and famine
1620 start of 'scientific revolution' (wiki on Age of Enlightenment)
1621 june 21, 27 protestants beheaded by Catholic Hapsburg in Prague
1622 Oughtred invents slide rule based on Napiers logarithm work. names sine,cosine
1625 Dutch settle Fort Nassau and New Amsterdam (future New York) ,colonizn
1630 Kepler dies.
1632 Galileo on trial by Inquisition. Ordered into house arrest.
1637 Decartes. cogito ergo sum. questioned sources of peoples' beliefs, his own too.
1642 Galileo dies; Newton born
1644 Torricelli discovered the principle of the barometer
1645 Urquhart builds on Napier's work, in trigonometry.
1645 start Maunder Minimum (70 yrs, til 1715) wikip
1648 end 30 years war. 8 million dead.
1664 Dutch traded US settlements to the English, for access to Spice Islands,colonizn .
1665-1666 Great Plague of London. smallpox (?)
1666 Newton's apple incident, 'does moon _fall_?'.
1667 Newton. Calculus
1687 Newton published Principia. expenses paid by Halley. 3 volumes. Latin. philosphy
1690 Newton's "nervous breakdown"
1713 Newton publishes small changes to Principia
1715 end Maunder Minimum.
17xx Voltaire publishes popular level translation of Principia (in french(?))
1715 start of Enlightenment in France. (see wikip)
1727 Newton dies in his sleep in London.
1750 Beam equations. Bernoulli, Euler. aided 2nd Industrial Rev, Eiffel Tower
1750 J Michell states magnetic poles attract w/ inverse square law
1750 approx start of the Industrial Revolution
1770 Brits abolish slavery
1770-1790 europe a mess. music, revolutions, Jacobin philosophers in France
1772 Priestley pub'd "Impregnating Water w/ Fixed Air"(CO2). water over beer vat
1776 US breaks from England
1779 Jan Ingenhousz discovers plants in light emit O2, consume C02. wikip /wiki/Jan_Ingenhousz
1782 'optical telegraph'. 137 miles Paris to Lille. Claude Chappe
1793 William Smith begins geo maps of england. til 1801
1784 Coulomb publishes about electrical charges, forces. used tortion balance
1789 French Revolution. end of Enlightenment. 'elites' guillotined, cannon'd
1791 Faraday born
1792 European royalty in a tizzy over recent changes. insecure.
1797 1st assembly line in U.S., Eli Whitney.
1800 Volta makes 1st chemical battery.
1800 3/4 of all humans enslaved, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_slavery
1801 William Smith publishes 'The Map that changed the world'
1803 start of Napoleonic Wars. in europe ------V;
1803 Faraday gets 1st job, 12y.o.
1809 England 'busy' "5th coalition" against France, & "Peninsula War"
1810 Mexico breaks from Spain.
1811 Faraday begins work for Davy. maps "fields", "lines of force"
1812 Napoleon invades Russia; US declares war on England over various frictions.
1815 Napoleon defeated at Waterloo -------------^
1815 Brewster publishes on polarization by reflection
1815 Tambora explodes. 71k dead. wikip
1816 the Year Without a Summer (due to Tambora). frost killed crops. sunspots viz w/ naked eye.
1819 W Irving book redefines Christmas as something for children, not drink-fest.
1819 Oersted finds electric current makes magnetic field
1820 Ampere showed parallel, current carrying wires attract each other.
1820 Ampere defines his force law, term "electrodynamics" for E vs M interactions
1821 electric motors wikip
1827 Robert Brown sees 'Brownian Motion'. pollen moving in a liquid. serway p531.
1828 xmas riot NYC
1830 David Faraday's measurements
1834 Faraday writing paper on electrolysis. named 'Cathode' (?)
1835 catholic church takes copernicus' book off the forbidden list
1836 battle of the Alamo. march 6th; Texan Revolution ended 4/21; California revolt
1837 Morse telegraph in US
1843 Charles Dickens created the classic holiday tale, 'A Christmas Carol'.
1843 Quaternions were introduced by Hamilton
1843 Wheatstone improves, popularizes 'the bridge'. soils analysis ++
1845 potato famine started
1847 Jan 13: treaty of Cahuenga binds Calif to US.
1848 jan 24: California gold discovered
1848 feb 2: Treaty Guadalupe Hidalgo ends Mex Amer war;
1848 Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto published. London wikip
1849 Carrington Event. 17.6 hr transit time, auroras in caribbean, tampico mx
1850 Kelvin distinguishes between H (Poison's model) and B (Ampere's) magnetic fields.
1851 The Fizeau Experiment. moving water, index of refraction. fresnel dragging.
wiki, ~ motivation for MM Experiment
1855- start of smallpox plague in china. went into the 1900's.
1859 Carrington Event. Sun-made electrical event. telegraph wires shocked
telegraph operators, shot sparks out of pylons, and lit papers on fire.
1859 modern form of slide rule invented. French artillery lieutenant Mannheim.
1860 Maxwell meets Faraday after surviving smallpox and lay off. On physical lines of force.
1861 Dec 8th french troops Veracruz. US busy w/ civil war; couldnt help, Monroe Doctrine
1861 French desire was 'free trade', silver, in americas; excuse was getting past interest payments fm mexico.
>>> 1861-2 Maxwell 4 papers "On Physical Lines of Force". ElectroDynamics?
1862 Britain, Spain drop out of Franco-Mexican war after discovering France had planned it all along.
1862 Cinco de Mayo. Mexicans defeat the French at Puebla (but war not over til 1867)
1862,65 maxwell claims light is electro magnetic radiation
1865 end of US Civil War
1866 transatlantic telegraph cable.
1867 June 19, Maximillian (plus 2) shot by forces of Benito Juarez, end Franco-Mexican war
1868 Huggins was first determines the velocity of a star fm doppler.
1868 helium spectrum observed on the Sun during an eclipse.
1869 trans cont railroad finished in US. // gold rush article, wiki
1873 Maxwell's 2 volume book
1879 Einstein born; Edison's commercially viable lightbulb
1881 Gunfight at the OK corral.
1884 longitude agreement made. Greenwich == 0.
1884 Oliver Heaviside recasts Maxwell's Eqns into vector form. 20 eqns down to 4.
1887 Michelson-Morley "Ether-Wind experiment". tried 1881+. wikip.
"the moving-off point for the theoretical aspects of the Second Scientific Revolution", wiki
1887 Heaviside advises adding inductors to reduce distortion in telegraph cables. (ignored for years)
1887 Vogel and Scheiner discovered the annual Doppler effect, the change in near-ecliptic stars. due to earth's orbital speed.
1889 Oklahoma land rush
1892 Lorentz offers explanations , "local time", and his transform.
1895 Einstein age 16. "What does photon look like if you fly next to it?"
1896 AE recinds german citizenship. moves to switzerland.
1896 Marconi's radio begins working.
1897 JJ Thomson discovers the electron. cathode ray
18xx Minkowski, Einstein's teacher.
1895 public fascination with 4th dimension. murders. London.
1898 Emmy Noether only allowed to audit classes at German univ.
1899 Lorentz, Dutch physicist, "local time" concept
life expectancy: 31, world wide
1900 Planck publishes 1st paper on light quanta. later enhanced by AE. later the seed of QMech.
1902 Lorentz wins nobel prize. (spectral lines, w/ Zeeman)
1904 Lorentz. electrodynamics, increases in mass.
1905 Special Relativity. "Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies", "Annus Mirabilius"
intro to Special Relativity see $pub/einsteinNotes.txt, has PBS ref.
Einstein explains Brownian Motion. see 1827
1907 Gravitational time dilation was first described by Albert Einstein
1908 Minkowski: SR could also be explained as a 4D continuum called "spacetime".
1908 Tunguska event. Not formally researched til 1930. 1000 Hiroshimas, 40% Tsar Bomba.
1909 Minkowski dies suddenly of appendicitis! Jan 12th
1909 Millikan performs 'oil drop experiment' to define electron's charge.
1911 Wilson invents cloud chamber
1915 General Relativity. Gravity IS acceleration. Noether's theorem: conserved quantity <-> symmetry
1916 Karl Schwarzschild produced the first modern solution of general relativity that
would characterize a black hole.
1918 Spanish Flu. killed 100mil world wide.
1919 eclipse confirming General Relativity's predictions of light bending
1920 Rutherford starts at Cavendish Lab in Manchester https://history.aip.org/exhibits/rutherford/sections/atop-physics-wave.html
1921 eclipse proves parts of AE's papers. regarding bending of light, space.
1922 Hubble's island universes (galaxies)
1925 Lemaitre publishes idea of big bang (Cosmic Egg), Hubble constant (b4 Hubble published!)
1929 Redshift. Hubble's constant.
? 1931 engineering students Cockcroft and Walton join Rutherford. pub/doc/ photo
1931 Santa Claus generally was depicted as an elf until 1931, when Coca-Cola ads portrayed him as human-sized
1932 Chadwick discovers neutron
1932 Rutherford,Cockcroft, and Walton accelerate protons. Cloud chamber. cosmic rays
1935 Emmy Noether dies of ovarian cyst. Bryn Mawr
~1960 black holes characterized as a region of curved space
~1970 atomic clocks
1974 handheld calculator obviates slide rules
(2016: 85 percent of US national academy rejects god; de Grasson asks why it's
not 100%. part of "Blow Your Mind" series. can subscribe to it.)
1885: religious for a year, age 6
saved time in every way. simplified his life
1894: What would world look like from a motorcycle at speed of light? age ~15
criteria. source of confidence came from beauty. generality.
didn't care how long a study took.
rebellious. "barracks". hated school, teachers.
1896: recinded german citizenship. w/o country. moved to Switzerland. age 17
mathematician Hermann Minkowski (who was Einstein's
former mathematics professor in Swiss Federal Polytechnic)
1901: walked over the Alps, age 22
'cultural jew'. peaceful coexistence. ethics. shocked at fellow scientists
possessions "stones around the neck"
dreariness of daily __; disconnected from the larger universe
1919 eclipse launched his celeb status
1921 nobel prize.
1923 visited palestine
"supra-nationalism". refused induction.
against mass indoctrination.
1929 hut in germany. lasted 3 yrs. sailboat.
home raided while they were away.
1930's in US. in 'exile'
princeton. advanced. didnt have to DO anything.
had 2 assistants, Peter Bergmann & ?. unified theory
younger people at Advanced were into quantum mech.
stopped at 30 minutes
ebook "The Einstein Theory of Relativity, A Concise Statement"
"Till now it was believed that time and space existed by themselves,
even if there was nothing else - no sun, no earth, no stars - while
now we know that time and space are not the vessel for the universe,
but could not exist at all if there were no contents, namely, no sun,
earth and other celestial bodies." loc: 31.
Related Files, Web pages