see doc/lostCities.txt for things outside the norm.
  -30000 late paleolithic in Egypt. stone tools, Nile.
  -10000 end Paleolithic, start Mesolithic.Neolithic 40% died b4 age 15. survivors could get to 54y.o.
   -3600 Egypt. crops along Nile, domestication of animals. sun-dried bricks.
   -3300 Iceman, "Otzi", died. found in 1991. Brittanica
   -3200 meteoric iron shaped.  Bronze age starts. life expectancy 26 yrs
   -3000 early dynasic period Egypt. 'two lands', N,S, unify. art, architecture, religion, ~math
   -2400 Egypt starts using papyrus as paper
   -2300 Babylon founded. small town
   -2000 end Neolithic Age (new Stone Age). farming, metals wikip
   -1900~ Egyptian fractions. not like ours...
   -1894 Babylon small city-state. Chaldea was an area SE of Babylon, captured by Bab.
   -1840 Hammurabi prospered. built small empire. codified laws. Babylon the center.

   -19001600 BCE, Plimpton 322 tablet, which gives a table of Pythagorean-like
       triples and represents some of the most advanced mathematics prior
       to Greek mathematics not interested in exact solutions but approximations,
       and so they would commonly use linear interpolation to approximate
       intermediate values quadratic and cubic equations multiply both sides of
       an equation by like quantities so as to eliminate fractions and factors

   -1750 Hammurabi dies; son begins to screw it up.
   -1770-1670 Babylon was the largest city in the world from c. cuneiform tablets. 200k

   -1700 tables of solutions in clay. 'triplets' (?) not symbolic

   -1550~ "Battle of Jerico. Israelites marching north to promised land." Took no prisoners.
        However, almost all archeologists agree the Exodus and this battle are
        only stories sourced from the trailing end of horses. wikip

   -1180 bronze age end, start iron age. near Anatolia.(~turkey), islands...
       "greek dark ages". pottery simpler.
       supposed cause: Sea Peoples"

    -900 end of 'Sea Peoples', a confederacy of pirates, invading mediterranean sea coast.

    -800 re-emergence of sizeable, civilized towns, cities, arts.

    -786 root of C Fagan's star positions for astrology. wiki/Sidereal_and_tropical_astrology
    -??? Babylonian 'Chaldean' measurements of star positions (later used by Hipparchus)

    -776 greek archaic period (til 480BC). sudden population rise, started olympics, alphabet,
         Athens democracy, Sparta oligarchy. missing detailed historical record.
         "traditions" (stories) formed here later written up by Herodotus.

    -609-539 Babylon rebuilt by the Assyrians. became the capital of the Neo-Babylonian Empire.
         Hanging Gardens. Babylon was the largest city in the world from c. 612 to 320 BC
    -605 Babylon Captivity. captive jews taught religion, construction, math
    -600 end Iron Age (varied by location). start of history, Classical Period for Greece

    -600 Thales of Miletus, who is credited by Aristotle, two centuries later, as laying the foundations
         of the physical sciences in Ionia (east of Greece). Described nature w/o supernatural influence.
         Bertrand Russel called him the '1st western philosopher'. 1st of the "Seven Sages".
         wikip  Thales theorem
         observed static electricity, magnetite
         Thales traveled to Babylon and Alexandria.

    -550 Persia rises as major power.
    -540 Pythagoras. Ionian. theorem. writer. philosopher==lover of wisdom. learned geometry in Egypt(?).
         Pythagorians acted like a religion
         Pythagoras traveled to Babylon and Alexandria.
    -539 jews released fm Babylon. carry building techniques home. wiki Babylon
    -537 jews begin construction of the second temple in jerusalem.
    -500 Ionian Revolt. wikip
    -480 2nd Persian invasion. Greek Classical period starts.
    -476-446 'thirty year peace' between Athens and Sparta. wikip
    -431-421 Peloponnesian War, sparta vs athens. Athens power diminished; Sparta's raised
    -430 smallpox plague of Athens.
    -400 Socrates->Plato's Academy in Athens->Aristotle  // mnemonic on ordering S-P-A
    -384 Aristotle born in Macedonia
    -350 Aristotle earth centric;
         5 elements: earth,wind,air,fire, and ____
         Aether, which is the divine substance that makes up the heavenly spheres and heavenly bodies
         Virtually adopted (later) as church dogma.
    -343 Aristotle starts tutoring Alexander the great.

    -331 Alexander the Great's takes Babylon

    -323 Alexander the Great dies. End of Greek's Classic Age, start 'Archaic Period'
    -323 Euclid (of Alexandria)'s started time (w/ Ptolemy)
         Elements, geometry, axiomatic method, number theory. rigor
         Euclid wrote several (13?) books. geometric algebra is covered in Euclid's Elements.

    -307 Greek Epicurus fights superstition. Advises "live pleasureably". School "Garden"
    -300 "third century BC". Parchment replaces papyrus.
    -300 1st chinese math doc

    -287 Archimedes, awesome 'Maker'. solar reflectors, catapults, math using geometric algebra

    -283 Euclid's time (w/ Ptolemy) in Alexandria ends (?)
    -250 most influential chinese math book, "The nine chapter on the mathematical art", 246 problems

    -212 Archimedes killed by a Roman soldier, 75 yrs old

    -129 Hipparchus made a star catalog from notes made by Chaldeans. H in Rhodes at the time(?).
         Differences in star positions allowed him to argue that the earth's spin was wobbling
         ("precession of the equinoxes" Brittanica.

    -106-43 Cicero. writings helped start Renaissance, Enlightenment. killed by Roman soldier

     -31 final battle (Actium) of the Roman Republic; Start Roman Empire
     -30 Romans capture Alexandria.

life expectancy: if child lived to 10y.o. s/he, on average, could live to 47

     100 paper invented in China.

    +100ish "(2nd century), muslim scientists begin testing consequences of assertions". Europeans adopted practice in 16th,17th
    ~120 Ptolemy's epicycle model to support Aristotle's
         earth-centered solar system. translucent shells.
         listed positions of 1025 stars wikip
         'Almagest'. star pos used by Halley 1718 to learn that Sirius and Arcturus had moved !
     165-180 smallpox plague. dunno where.
     250-270+ smallpox plague ('of Cyprian') weakens Roman empire. 266 5000deaths/day in Rome

     325 1st council of Nicea, Constantine I //2nd in 787

     354-430 St Augustine. "reads w/o speaking!". algerian bishop, Hippo

     387 gauls (Senones) sacked Rome after a land dispute on Adriatic coast.

     405 Hypatia, 1st woman math/astronomer, killed by religious mob. Marks end of Alexandria's prominence
     410 visigoths sack Rome.
     455 vandals sack Rome.
     476 common date given for the fall of the Roman Empire

     541 plague of Justinian.

     618 Chinese invent ice cream.
     672 Greek Fire, a napalm like weapon, invented.

     750 Islamic Golden Age. scientists. naming stars, the root words for algebra. algorithm
         morphed trigonometry into its modern form. ptolemy's book translated from latin to arabic
         star names, arabic numerals, zero, algebra.

life expectancy: 35+, scholars 59-84. dif in Spain

     830 1st book on true algebra, "The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing"
         solutions to linear and quadratic eqns.

     885 Vikings invade Paris. terror-based warfare.

     900- Chinese invent gunpowder
     900 drought in central america decimates Maya.

    1001 Vikings, Vinland settlement in N America. Leif Eriksson.
    1066 Halley's comet, Norman conquest of England.

    1100 The Intellectual Collapse of Islam, Neil de Grasson
         (Imam) Hamid al-Ghazali "math is the work of the devil". revelation replaced investigation.

    1100 Islam takes a religious turn. "math the work of the devil".
    1100's wikip muslim conquests. crusades
         middle east muslim, not pakastani etc.
        (2016: 85 percent of US national academy rejects god; de Grasson asks why it's
         not 100%. part of "Blow Your Mind" series.  can subscribe to it.)

    1104 Arsenal of Venice founded. 16k people mass produced sailing ships in large assembly lines
    1111 Henry V becomes Holy Roman Emperor
    1145 2nd crusade
    1150 smelting of iron. tech fm china. used in sweden.
    1170 Purgatory defined; Thomas Becket murdered
    1185 1st windmills
    1191 Saladin defeated by Richard I of England
    1193 first merchant guild established.

    1200's wikip  crusades 4-9
    1202 book "Liber Abaci", Fibonacci
    1203 Siege of Constantinople. Greek Fire conspicuously absent. secret lost (?)
    1204 4th crusade. sack of Constantinople
    1204 fall of Normandy. ends Norman rule of france
    1206 Ghengis Khan declared great by Mongols. 'Make Mongols Great Again'
    1215 Magna Carta
    1221 Venice trades w/ Mongols
    1223 Republic of Venice formed
    1250 "in 13th century China's paper introduced to europe". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paper#History
    1258 Baghdad destroyed by Mongols, concludes the Caliphate
    1265 Thomas Aquinas begins to write his Summa Theologiae.
    1271 start 9th crusade
    1300 Marco Polo. Silk Road. Venice. book released. "Travels of Marco Polo"

   ~1320 William of Occam. franciscan friar. writer.

life expectancy: if 21 yo, then 64 avg. England: plague altered avg

    1345 Petrarch, humanist, names 'Dark Ages', urges study of 'classics'. Renaissance.
         heavily influenced by Cicero.
         start of a period "Ionian Enchantment". ref: book "why E MC2", loc 1010 kindle.
    1347-1351 smallpox plague. killed 200mil. europe
    1362 Petrach's family fleeing plague. around (republic of) Venice. he retired to Padua

    1450 Gutenberg printing press, Mainz Germany. many functioning by 1500
    1453 Fall of Constantinople pushed Greek scholars west, bringing ancient Greek manuscripts
    1490 da Vinci active. Florence. Medici supported art. 'Renaissance Man'
    1500 200 printing presses across europe had printed more than 20M volumes.
    1504 conjunction. observed by Copernicus who wrote that "Mars surpasses
         the numbers by more than two degrees. Saturn is surpassed by the
         numbers by one and a half degrees." (NOTE: _checking_consequences_)
         Copernicus tried circular orbits but noted smaller errors remained (ellipses)
    1513 Machiavelli published 'The Prince', Florence. wikip
    1517 start protestant reformation; humanism a factor; ended after 30years war, 1648
    1543 Copernicus  releases "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres"
         on the day he died. It describes a heliocentric solar system, contrary to church teachings.
    1564 Galileo born.
    1571 Kepler born. near Stuttgart, Black Forest. grandson of town mayor, father mercenary
    1577 Great Comet. witnessed by Kepler
    1582 Gregorian calendar (?). Jesuit
    1590 Napier's work on logarithms known by Brahe. "1590's"
    1594 Kepler math teacher. Copernican. part time astrologer.
    1595 Kepler finds geometric solids pattern which approxs planetary periods. later rejects it
    1596 Kepler receives permission to publish Mysterium Cosmographicum w/o bible refs.
    1596    and MC had shed epicycles etc used by Copernicus. Kepler poor (artist(?))
    1596 toilet invented by John Harington (but widespread use in late 19th cent)
    1597 Galileosupports Copernicus. Escapes death.

    1600 Inquisition burns Giordano Bruno at the stake. Dominican friar, philosopher,
    1600 mathematician and astronomer. Over heliocentrism and an elaboration of Copernicus' theories.
    1600 Gilbert's 'De Magnete' raises magnetism to a science.
    1601 Tycho Brahe dies (oct). Kepler takes over.
    1605 Kepler determines planets move in ellipses. further supports heliocentrism.(NOTE: _checking_consequences_)
    1610 Galileo. moons of Jupiter. writes Kepler for recommendation. JK borrows 'scope.
    1614 Napier publishes 57pg book, tables of natural logs, spherical trig.
    1616 catholic furor and debates over heliocentrism.
    1618 start of 30 years war. mostly in northern europe. italy stayed catholic
    1620 start of 'scientific revolution' (wiki on Age of Enlightenment)
    1622 Oughtred invents slide rule based on Napiers logarithm work. names sine,cosine
    1630 Kepler dies.
    1632 Galileo on trial by Inquisition. Ordered into house arrest.
    1637 Decartes. cogito ergo sum. questioned sources of peoples' beliefs, his own too.
    1642 Galileo dies; Newton born
    1644 Torricelli discovered the principle of the barometer
    1645 Urquhart builds on Napier's work, in trigonometry.
    1645 start Maunder Minimum (70 yrs, til 1715) wikip
    1648 end 30 years war. 8 million dead.
    1665-1666 Great Plague of London. smallpox (?)
    1666 Newton's apple incident, 'does moon _fall_?'.
    1667 Newton. Calculus
    1687 Newton published Principia. expenses paid by Halley. 3 volumes. Latin. philosphy
    1690 Newton's "nervous breakdown"
    1713 Newton publishes small changes to Principia
    1715 end Maunder Minimum.
    17xx Voltaire publishes popular level translation of Principia (in french(?))
    1715 start of Enlightenment in France. (see wikip)
    1727 Newton dies in his sleep in London.
    1750 Beam equations. Bernoulli, Euler. aided 2nd Industrial Rev, Eiffel Tower
    1750 J Michell states magnetic poles attract w/ inverse square law

    1770 Brits abolish slavery
    1770-1790 europe a mess. music, revolutions, Jacobin philosophers in France
    1772 Priestley pub'd "Impregnating Water w/ Fixed Air"(CO2). water over beer vat
    1776 US breaks from England
    1779 Jan Ingenhousz discovers plants in light emit O2, consume C02. wikip /wiki/Jan_Ingenhousz

    1782 'optical telegraph'. 137 miles Paris to Lille. Claude Chappe
    1784 Coulomb publishes about electrical charges, forces. used tortion balance
    1789 French Revolution. end of Enlightenment. 'elites' guillotined, cannon'd
    1791 Faraday born
    1792 European royalty in a tizzy over recent changes. insecure.
    1797 1st assembly line in U.S., Eli Whitney.
    1800 Volta makes 1st chemical battery.
    1803 start of Napoleonic Wars. in europe  ------V;
    1803 Faraday gets 1st job, 12y.o.
    1809 England 'busy' "5th coalition" against France, & "Peninsula War"

    1810 Mexico breaks from Spain.
    1811 Faraday begins work for Davy. maps "fields", "lines of force"
    1812 Napoleon invades Russia; US declares war on England over various frictions.
    1815 Napoleon defeated at Waterloo -------------^
    1815 Brewster publishes on polarization by reflection
    1815 Tambora explodes. 71k dead.  wikip
    1819 W Irving book redefines Christmas as something for children, not drink-fest.
    1819 Oersted finds electric current makes magnetic field
    1820 Ampere showed parallel, current carrying wires attract each other.
    1820 Ampere defines his force law, term "electrodynamics" for E vs M interactions
    1821 electric motors wikip
    1827 Robert Brown sees 'Brownian Motion'. pollen moving in a liquid. serway p531.
    1828 xmas riot NYC
    1830 David Faraday's measurements

    1834 Faraday writing paper on electrolysis. named 'Cathode' (?)
    1835 catholic church takes copernicus' book off the forbidden list
    1836 battle of the Alamo. march 6th; Texan Revolution ended 4/21; California revolt
    1837 Morse telegraph in US
    1843 Charles Dickens created the classic holiday tale, 'A Christmas Carol'.
    1843 Quaternions were introduced by Hamilton
    1843 Wheatstone improves, popularizes 'the bridge'. soils analysis ++
    1847 Jan 13: treaty of Cahuenga binds Calif to US.
    1848 jan 24: California gold discovered
    1848 feb  2: Treaty Guadalupe Hidalgo ends Mex Amer war;
    1848 Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto published. London  wikip
    1849 Carrington Event. 17.6 hr transit time, auroras in caribbean, tampico mx
    1850 Kelvin distinguishes between H (Poison's model) and B (Ampere's) magnetic fields.
    1851 The Fizeau Experiment. moving water, index of refraction. fresnel dragging.
         wiki, ~ motivation for MM Experiment
    1855-  start of smallpox plague in china. went into the 1900's.
    1859 Carrington Event. Sun-made electrical event. telegraph wires shocked
         telegraph operators, shot sparks out of pylons, and lit papers on fire.
    1859 modern form of slide rule invented. French artillery lieutenant Mannheim.
    1860 Maxwell meets Faraday after surviving smallpox and lay off. On physical lines of force.
>>> 1861-2 Maxwell 4 papers "On Physical Lines of Force".  ElectroDynamics?
    1862 Cinco de Mayo. Mexicans defeat the French at Puebla
    1862,65 maxwell claims light is electro magnetic radiation
    1865 end of US Civil War
    1866 transatlantic telegraph cable.

    1868 Huggins was first determines the velocity of a star fm doppler.
    1868 helium spectrum observed on the Sun during an eclipse.
    1869 trans cont railroad finished in US. // gold rush article, wiki
    1873 Maxwell's 2 volume book
    1879 Einstein born; Edison's commercially viable lightbulb

    1881 Gunfight at the OK corral.
    1884 longitude agreement made. Greenwich == 0.
    1884 Oliver Heaviside recasts Maxwell's Eqns into vector form. 20 eqns down to 4.
    1887 Michelson-Morley "Ether-Wind experiment". tried 1881+. wikip.
         "the moving-off point for the theoretical aspects of the Second Scientific Revolution", wiki
    1887 Heaviside advises adding inductors to reduce distortion in telegraph cables. (ignored for years)
    1887 Vogel and Scheiner discovered the annual Doppler effect, the change in near-ecliptic stars. due to earth's orbital speed.
    1889 Oklahoma land rush

    1892 Lorentz offers explanations , "local time", and his transform.
    1895 Einstein age 16. "What does photon look like if you fly next to it?"
    1896 AE recinds german citizenship. moves to switzerland.
    1896 Marconi's radio begins working.
    1897 JJ Thomson discovers the electron. cathode ray
    18xx Minkowski, Einstein's teacher.
    1895 public fascination with 4th dimension. murders. London.
    1898 Emmy Noether only allowed to audit classes at German univ.
    1899 Lorentz, Dutch physicist, "local time" concept

life expectancy: 31, world wide

    1900 Planck publishes 1st paper on light quanta. later enhanced by AE. later the seed of QMech.
    1902 Lorentz wins nobel prize. (spectral lines, w/ Zeeman)
    1904 Lorentz. electrodynamics, increases in mass.
    1905 Special Relativity. "Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies", "Annus Mirabilius"
        intro to Special Relativity see $pub/einsteinNotes.txt, has PBS ref.
         Einstein explains Brownian Motion. see 1827
    1907 Gravitational time dilation was first described by Albert Einstein
    1908 Minkowski: SR could also be explained as a 4D continuum called "spacetime".
    1908 Tunguska event. Not formally researched til 1930. 1000 Hiroshimas, 40% Tsar Bomba.
    1909 Minkowski dies suddenly of appendicitis! Jan 12th
    1909 Millikan performs 'oil drop experiment' to define electron's charge.
    1911 Wilson invents cloud chamber
    1915 General Relativity. Gravity IS acceleration. Noether's theorem: conserved quantity <-> symmetry
    1916 Karl Schwarzschild produced the first modern solution of general relativity that
        would characterize a black hole.
    1918 Spanish Flu. killed 100mil world wide.
    1919 eclipse confirming General Relativity's predictions of light bending

    1920 Rutherford starts at Cavendish Lab in Manchester https://history.aip.org/exhibits/rutherford/sections/atop-physics-wave.html
    1921 eclipse proves parts of AE's papers. regarding bending of light, space.
    1922 Hubble's island universes (galaxies)
    1925 Lemaitre publishes idea of big bang (Cosmic Egg), Hubble constant (b4 Hubble published!)
    1929 Redshift. Hubble's constant.

 ?  1931 engineering students Cockcroft and Walton join Rutherford. pub/doc/ photo
    1931 Santa Claus generally was depicted as an elf until 1931, when Coca-Cola ads portrayed him as human-sized
    1932 Chadwick discovers neutron
    1932 Rutherford,Cockcroft, and Walton accelerate protons. Cloud chamber. cosmic rays
    1935 Emmy Noether dies of ovarian cyst. Bryn Mawr

 ~1960 black holes characterized as a region of curved space
   ~1970 atomic clocks
    1974 handheld calculator obviates slide rules

file: pub/einsteinNotes.txt

PBS http://www.ovguide.com/einstein-9202a8c04000641f8000000000266e20#
1879 born
1885: religious for a year, age 6
sailing, violin,
saved time in every way. simplified his life
1894: What would world look like from a motorcycle at speed of light? age ~15
criteria. source of confidence came from beauty. generality.
didn't care how long a study took.
rebellious. "barracks". hated school, teachers.
1896: recinded german citizenship. w/o country. moved to Switzerland. age 17
    2 sons.
mathematician Hermann Minkowski (who was Einstein's
    former mathematics professor in Swiss Federal Polytechnic)
1901: walked over the Alps, age 22
'cultural jew'. peaceful coexistence. ethics. shocked at fellow scientists
possessions "stones around the neck"
dreariness of daily __; disconnected from the larger universe
1919 eclipse launched his celeb status
1921 nobel prize.
political weight.
1923 visited palestine
"supra-nationalism". refused induction.
against mass indoctrination.
1929 hut in germany. lasted 3 yrs. sailboat.
home raided while they were away.
1930's in US. in 'exile'
princeton. advanced. didnt have to DO anything.
had 2 assistants, Peter Bergmann & ?. unified theory
younger people at Advanced were into quantum mech.
stopped at 30 minutes

ebook "The Einstein Theory of Relativity, A Concise Statement"
"Till now it was believed that time and space existed by themselves,
even if there was nothing else - no sun, no earth, no stars - while
now we know that time and space are not the vessel for the universe,
but could not exist at all if there were no contents, namely, no sun,
earth and other celestial bodies."  loc: 31.

Related Files, Web pages

Algebra History_of, wikipedia