c03Botany of Desiredunno4 plants studied. Great
c04handbook of western gardens(?)garage?Lisa's(?)
c05UCD__TODO find link...
c08Build-It-Yourself Science Labofc shelf
SG has copy
c09Atomic Chemistryofc (for now) see prjt
c10Illustrated Guide to Home
Chemistry Experiments
ofc __
c11AP Chemistry Examofc Princeton Review
c12Indoor Gardening?
c18 College Chemistry, 'ref18' in gsci Kindle, tablet Schaum's outline.

to add

chem additions: anion(-), cation(+), ESD=ElectroStatic Discharge,
isopropyl/cloud chamber
Corona_discharge, arc'g

smithsonian mag, rx'd 12/26/18 had 'great ball of fire' article. Said the
age of a meteorite could be determined by ration of lead and K-Argon isotopes.
Allende meteorite contained olivine, pyroxene, feldspar, and glass.
4.57 billion y.o.
acetic acid
CH3CO2H, molar wt 60g, pH 4.76. In vinegar. classed a 'weak acid'.
acids and bases
'acid' is from the latin for 'sour' (!).
    store acid in glass vessels. (it reacts w/ metal)
    never pour water into acid (ref c08 p34)
    best gloves are nitrile.  (ref c08 p35 and apx E)
Acid-base reactions, types of
1. Arrhenius acid, 1884: adds H+ to water (actually makes H3O+), written "H+ (ag)". Arrhenius 1884. eg HCL,acetic
    Arrhenius base "adds OH-"
    this description is 'limited in its scope'
2. Bronsted-Lowry acid, 1923: proton transfer. CH3COOH + H20 <ToFrom>CH3COOH- + H3O+
    //where CH3COOH is acetic acid
3. Lewis Acid, 1923: e- pair transfer.

issue acid base notes
pH 0-7 8-14
litmus red paper orig blue. more
forms salts whn reactg w/ metal

wikip aqueous solution ammonia NH3 conjugate base denoted A- in wikip. Acid-base conjugate pairs differ by one proton e- electron equilibrium constant Ka = [H+][A-]/[HA] // == product concentrations / reactants concentration also discussed in ref 18, page 258 equilibrium constant example, XAM p117 hydron == H+ == proton hydronium ion H3O+ hydroxide (ion) OH- oxidizer causes something to lose electrons reducer 10-7 moles per liter signif...
Adenosine diphosphate.

ADP can be interconverted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). ATP contains one more phosphate group than does ADP. AMP contains one fewer phosphate group. Energy transfer used by all living things is a result of dephosphorylation of ATP by enzymes known as ATPases. The cleavage of a phosphate group from ATP results in the coupling of energy to metabolic reactions and a by-product of ADP.

alcohol burner
safer (less heat) than bunsen burner. burns isopropyl (alcohol)

An alkane is a hydrocarbon, consisting of hydrogen and carbon atoms arranged in a tree structure in which all the carbon-carbon bonds are single. Alkanes have the general chemical formula CnH2n+2. The alkanes range in complexity from the simplest case of methane, CH4 where n = 1 (sometimes called the parent molecule), to arbitrarily large molecules.


negatively charged ion

Arrhenius, reaction rates. 1889

a formula for the temperature dependence of reaction rates. Arrhenius_equation, wikip

Arrhenius' rule

Using 'Stefan's law' (better known as the Stefan-Boltzmann law), Arrhenius formulated what he referred to as a 'rule'. In its original form, Arrhenius' rule reads as follows:

"If the quantity of carbonic acid [ CO2 + H2O <=> H2CO3 (carbonic acid) ] increases in geometric progression, the augmentation of the temperature will increase nearly in arithmetic progression"

The following formulation of Arrhenius' rule is still in use today:
delta F = alpha * ln(C/C0)
where C0 is the concentration of CO2 at the beginning (time-zero) of the period being studied [(If the same concentration unit is used for both C and C0, then it doesn't matter which concentration unit is used.)]; C is the CO2 concentration at end of the period being studied; ln is the natural logarithm (= log base e (loge)); and Delta F is the augmentation of the temperature, in other words the change in the rate of heating Earth's surface (radiative forcing), which is measured in joules of heat energy per second, per square meter — a joule per second is one watt. Derivations from atmospheric radiative transfer models have found that Alpha for CO2 is 5.35 (+/- 10%) for Earth's atmosphere.

antimony, in doping semiconductors
electronic tutorials semiconductor, local
atom, info to distribute
from notes, reading TODO
strong F out to 10e-14m
Z #protons, N neutrons, A=Z+N  atomic number
chg sign for P vs electron. 1.602e-19 C   where C is Coulombs
binding E  TODO. weird.
Mev/C2 == mass
1932 chadwick. neutron
nuclear radius r = r0 A1/3 where A is mass number. r0 is 1.2e-15m
nuclear density = 2.3e17kg/m3
serway p1297
nuclear force range about 2 fm femtometeres. 2e-15m
neutrons in nuc needed so protons don't fly away.  due to coulomb force.
see doc/nucNote.png
nuc excited for 10e-10s !             much/all of this fm serway (vol II)
1319 spin angular momentum
Adenosine triphosphate

Found in all forms of life, ATP is often referred to as the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer. When consumed in metabolic processes, it converts to either the di- or monophosphates, respectively ADP and AMP. Other processes regenerate ATP such that the human body recycles its own body weight equivalent in ATP each day. It is also a precursor to DNA and RNA.
see also ADP, local

(verb) to flower
Baking powder
Baking soda with added salts and corn starch.
Baking Soda
NaHCO3, Sodium bicarbonate, 84g/mol alkaline.

Baking soda can be used to raise the total alkalinity of a hot tub spa so long as the water isn't too acidic. It decomposes above 70 or 80C (references disagreed) and produces CO2 bubbles in a recipe. Used as a fire suppressing agent. Kills cockroaches (wikip)

NaHCO3 + CH3COOH -> CH3COONa + H2O + CO2(g) reaction w/ acetic acid (in vinegar)
CH3COONa is sodium acetate
make CO2 w/ baking soda
another CO2 effort
python pgm

balance an equation
XAM p118 gives example, one which requires solving a quadratic !
bath salts
a video on youtube claimed these were amphetamines and had caused
many serious physical problems, "accidents".
voltage based on 'half reactions, wikip'
in which each metal, anode or cathode, has its own interaction with the electrolyte.
The combination produces the voltage.

internal resistance builds up with use and will limit the voltage. See related prjt

SFE Coulomb Counter, 180122 where are these?  TODO
Lead acid battery, wikip
non-correctable problems, old doc, like cell reversal, battery university
non-correctable problems, new doc, like cell reversal, battery university. TODO:read
low capacity
high internal resistance
elevated self-discharge
battery, lemon battery
    zinc: Zn --> Zn(2+) + 2e-
    acid: 2H+ + 2e- --> H2   (sulphuric used by Volta)
The copper electrode doesn't react. just an electrode.
H2 accumulates on Cu electrode weakening the cell. (motion would help(?))
Volta, wiki, see section 'Early battery' acid,Zn,Cu
battery projects
internalResistance/doc/batteryTestRint.png mathPhysics/internalResistance/doc, 1703xx
internal resistance prjt mathPhysics/internalResistance... 1703xx
rover/doc/batteryTable.png types of batts, properties. arduino/...; NiCd, NiMH, Li-ion...
pix_figures/testingBattery54.jpg how to use common, small batt tester, 2010
robotics/doc/batteryTester.png robotics/doc, arduino schematic proposed for robotics. not built

archive/car/batteryTable.html (Big) batts considered for electric car design.  0903060832
ExideGolfCartBatteryMaintenance.pdf detailed care of golf cart lead acid batteries, 2012
    recharge daily. don't overfill (can cause loss of electrolyte), use pure water, clean batt w/ baking soda
    check batt: acid specify gravity_batt should not vary more than 50 points between cells.
    fully charge before storing. check and recharge if below 1.22 specific gravity.
    New batteries and old batteries that have been in storage are not capable of their rated output
        until they have been discharged and charged several times.
    When temperatures are below 60ºF, new batteries should be given an extra, full charge once a week.
        The ampere hours a battery can deliver and its charge acceptance varies directly with battery temperature.
1.26-1.28no need
1.24-1.264 hrs
1.22-1.248 hrs
<1.2212 hrs
Blossom End Rot, see veggieTech/hydro/doc/nutrientRecipesCV21600.pdf
inhale O2, exhale CO2
an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6
an aromatic hydrocarbon...colorless and highly flammable liquid
has a high octane number, it is an important component of gasoline.
Michael Faraday first isolated and identified benzene in 1825.
In the 19th and early 20th centuries, benzene was used as an after-shave lotion because of its pleasant smell.
...benzene was frequently used as an industrial solvent, especially for degreasing metal.
As its toxicity became obvious,...
Many important chemical compounds are derived from benzene by replacing one or more of its hydrogen atoms with another functional group.
wikip, benzene
wikip, benzene ring
Binding force, electron shell
binding force strongest in ionic bonds,
next is covalent,
last is Van der Waal PT1_Q68

A wacky-ass movement claiming that phases of the moon (and worse) suggest planting days, harvesting days etc. Amazing stuff. Seen at Santa Rosa's "Heirloom Expo". Search web for any of the scathing rebuttals to biodynamics.

A borax molecule, the "anhydrous sodium tetraborate" form. 7 O's!

if sodium tetraborate is "Na2B4O7", the 'borate' is B plus some number of O's.

A very "3D" image !

The term borax is often used for a number of closely related minerals or chemical compounds. "Sodium Borate" is "Na2B4O7 10H2O" Anhydrous sodium tetraborate is "Na2B4O7".
Borax, a base, is available at most grocery stores.

Borax, also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of boric acid. Powdered borax is white, consisting of soft colorless crystals that dissolve in water. A number of closely related minerals or chemical compounds that differ in their crystal water content are referred to as borax, but the word is usually used to refer to the decahydrate.[1] Commercially sold borax is partially dehydrated.

Borax is a component of many detergents, cosmetics, and enamel glazes. It is used to make buffer solutions in biochemistry, as a fire retardant, as an anti-fungal compound, in the manufacture of fiberglass, as a flux in metallurgy, neutron-capture shields for radioactive sources, a texturing agent in cooking, as a precursor for other boron compounds, and along with its inverse, boric acid, is useful as an insecticide.

Boron (B)
micro nutrient. Assist in the metabolic function of plant and aids in cell division.

Is also used in semiconductors:

electronic tutorials semiconductor, local

A buffer solution (more precisely, pH buffer or hydrogen ion buffer) is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base, or vice versa. Its pH changes very little when a small amount of strong acid or base is added to it. Buffer solutions are used as a means of keeping pH at a nearly constant value in a wide variety of chemical applications. In nature, there are many systems that use buffering for pH regulation. For example, the bicarbonate buffering system is used to regulate the pH of blood.
from wikip

"bullishness" (tomato plant forms too much veg structure). A ref says it's due to too much N. Keeping the N level low (60 to 70ppm) early in the season helps eliminate bullishness.
One parent article for this entry is nutrient recipe
bunsen burner
The gas can be natural gas (which is mainly methane) or a liquefied petroleum gas, such as propane, butane, or a mixture of both.
Calcium (Ca)
secondary nutrient. Calcium is essential for plant growth, cell division and enlargement. Calcium is a component of cell membranes and is important for developing the root system, shoot tips and storage organs. Calcium aids in pollen development and help plants to retain their foliage.
CaCO3. when heated, it expands on 1 axis, shrinks on other.
Calvin Cycle
Carbon (C)
primary nutrient. Carbon (C)
carbon rod
probably refers to the central rod extracted from an expired D-cell battery. Weird feel to them. Resistance close to zero(?). Acts 'capacitive' on a VOM. Have 2 rods(2018).
see ref c08, pg 21, 'carbon arc furnance', High Current!
carbonated water
Also called 'selzer water' or 'fizzy water'.
CO2 dissolved in water 0.2 to 1% makes carbonic acid (H2CO3). pH between 3 and 4. Traditionally a salt is often added to mimic the original recipe which was based on preservatives added to water (! wikip /Carbonated_water).

Saw a Bill Nye video (Netflix, 1st video) where he made it by blowing bubbles into a glass of (chilled?) water with a straw! Took ~6-9 healthy blows.

When industry makes carbonated water, the water is chilled to just above freezing so it will absorb the max amount of gas Henry's law, wikip

'hypercapnia' == CO2 overload

see CO2, local
Carbon Dioxide
"Fixed Air". Used to kill mice in breweries, 1767.
project related to CO2 measurement

The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl-. It is formed when the element chlorine (a halogen gains an electron or when a compound such as hydrogen chloride is dissolved in water or other polar solvents. Chloride salts such as sodium chloride are often very soluble in water. It is an essential electrolyte located in all body fluids responsible for maintaining acid/base balance, transmitting nerve impulses and regulating fluid in and out of cells.

Chlorine (Cl)
secondary nutrient.- not always essential
Cobalt (Co)
micro nutrient. Ethylene synthesis is a process that inhibits shoot development. Cobalt is an ion that inhibits ethylene synthesis thus allowing shoots to develop.
molar weight = 44g, typ 390ppm, 50% heavier than dry air.
Typical concentration in atmosphere = 390ppm = 0.039%, is < 1:2500
(other material says the concentration is closer to 300 or 350 ppm).
 350-1000 typical of occupied indoor spaces w/ good air exchange
1000-2000 complaints of drowsiness, poor air
2000-5000 headaches, sleepiness, stagnant, stuffy air
30000 OSHA's max limit. == 3 percent
100000 lethal. 10%. death in 30 minutes.
'dry ice' -109.3F = -78.5C; no liquid form below 5.13 atm. solid to gas == 'vv_sublimation'
    lowers water's pH when dissolved in it, forming carbonic acid (H2CO3)
    density about 1.5 g/cm3

def dryIceNeeded(vol2fill_cm3) :   see examples/dryIce*.py

articles found w/ google string "carbon dioxide enrichment"

hydrofarm article quantitative article. Has 'store locator' (2 in concord!)

homeharvest "air fertilization". cites specific plants w/ results at 550ppm

Aspen FACE The (Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) Experiment is a multidisciplinary study to assess the effects of increasing tropospheric ozone and carbon dioxide levels on the structure and function of northern forest ecosystems.

comprehensive guide "Studies have shown optimal growth and yields at 90-95f, 1,500 ppm CO2, 45-50 % relative humidity, 7,500-10,000 lumens/square foot of light, and vigorous air movement both above and below the canopy. CO2 enrichment under 80F, under 7500 lumens/sf, or above 50% humidity is not recommended because plants will not be conducting photosynthesis quickly enough to benefit from the enrichment."

Quantifies volume, CO2 needed. Describes exhaust cycling, CO2 generation. propane quantity, mosquito killing devices!, fermentation of sugar and __ soda/acid requires a lot of material except for small closet grows human breathing. normal. 70minutes for full day, 512 cu ft. (16seconds for 2cu ft!) circulation fan needed.
CO2 fm baking soda
CO2 fm paraffin candles
CO2 fm propane (torch)
baking_soda = Sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3
baking_powder = baking soda + some stuff
carbonated water, local

Another inert material for growing.
Compost Tea
Made from a mature compost by added heated water. Believe it's compatible with hydroponics.
coal gas
. mix of H2, methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and other volatiles, made by burning coal w/o air. Was piped to homes in the 60's and 70's. There's a wikip page on it.
units etc TODO. moles/liter...
conjugate base, 'conjugate acid'

A conjugate acid, within the Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory, is a species formed by the reception of a proton (H+) by a base—in other words, it is a base with a hydrogen ion added to it. On the other hand, a conjugate base is merely what is left after an acid has donated a proton in a chemical reaction. Hence, a conjugate base is a species formed by the removal of a proton from an acid. In summary, this can be represented as the following chemical reaction:
Acid + Base <ToFrom> Conjugate Base + Conjugate Acid

The Brønsted–Lowry theory, which proposed that any compound that can transfer a proton to any other compound is an acid, and the compound that accepts the proton is a base. A proton is represented by the symbol H+ because it constitutes the nucleus of a hydrogen atom,[2] that is, a hydrogen cation.

A cation can be a conjugate acid, and an anion can be a conjugate base, depending on which substance is involved and which acid–base theory is the viewpoint. wikip

contact cement
can glue polyethylene (?) eHow
Copper (Cu)

micro nutrient. Copper contains amine oxidase (CuAO) has been suggested to play a role in h2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide) production in plant cell walls during cell development and in response to pathogen attack. Copper functions as a catalyst in photosynthesis and respiration. It is a constituent of several enzyme systems involved in building and converting amino acids to proteins.

Copper is important in carbohydrate and protein metabolism and is important in the formation of lining in plant cell walls which leads to the structural strength of the cells, and the plant. Copper also affects the flavor, the storage ability, and the sugar content of fruits.

cyanobacteria, blue-green algae, "produce oxygen"

"Cyanobacteria are arguably the most successful group of microorganisms on earth. They are the most genetically diverse; they occupy a broad range of habitats across all latitudes, widespread in freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, and they are found in the most extreme niches such as hot springs, salt works, and hypersaline bays."

Cyanobacteria account for 20-30% of Earth's photosynthetic productivity".

"Large blooms can also rob the water of oxygen, creating a dead zone where other organisms cannot survive"
wiki article on cyanobacteria
Lake Atitlan bloom 2009

Aka "physiological time" or "heat units" (UCD article). Used a bit differently by bug/pest people and by plant people. See Gdd (local).
quant study fm 'science direct'. $19.95
This is the sum (integral) of temperature over a time measured in days where the temperature is measured relative to a "base temperature" (which is often the freezing point of water but can be the lowest temperature a specific organism can grow).
wikipedia for various plants, trees.
U.C.Davis article describes several methods for calculating.
  • The references don't specify temperature units, Farenheit or Celsius, but they seem to assume Farenheit and specifically call out "Celsius degree days".
  • An organism may have an upper temperature limit too. In that case the summation pretends the temperature never exceeded that limit (truncation).

container. thermos? Serway p577

"Do It Yourself". not just a term but (practically) a movement! eg: "Maker", "Instructables". google those plus DIY.
Chemical structure of DNA, showing four nucleobase pairs produced by eight nucleotides: adenine (A) is joined to thymine (T), and guanine (G) is joined to cytosine (C). + This structure also shows the directionality of each of the two phosphate-deoxyribose backbones, or strands. The 5' to 3' (read "5 prime to 3 prime") directions are: down the strand on the left, and up the strand on the right. The strands twist around each other to form a double helix structure.
TODO doc/dnaBasicParts.png dnaStrandBonds.png
DNA replication
seen on CSET215 practice test
    alleles = a variant form of a given gene, can be recessive
    autosomal transmission.
         An autosome is a chromosome that is not a sex chromosome (== allosome ).
    cell = doc/DNAinCell.png
    chromosomes: X, Y are the 'allosomes' (== sex-determining chromosomes).
        Chromosomes are normally visible under a light microscope only when
        the cell is undergoing the metaphase of cell division.  chromosome phases
        interphase // prep for cell division. no real chrom activity(?)
            During all three parts of interphase, the cell grows by producing
            proteins and cytoplasmic organelles.
            sub phases. G1 (first gap), S (synthesis, Chrom copies made(?)), and G2 (second gap)
            (preprophase only for plants)
            prophase.  tightly condenses chromosomes and initiates mitotic spindle formation
            prometaphase  nuclear envelope disintegrates
            metaphase   two centrosomes begin pulling the chromosomes towards opposite ends of the cell
            anaphase    sister chromatids together are cleaved and move to ends of cell
            telophase   new nuclear envelope forms
        Cytokinesis is a 'clean up' phase.  imho

    gene == a sequence of DNA or RNA which codes for a molecule that has a function.
        During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA. The RNA can be directly
        functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function.

    pedigree chart == a diagram that shows the occurrence and appearance or phenotypes
        of a particular gene or organism and its ancestors from one generation to the next.

    phenotype == the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits,
        such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties,
        behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest). A phenotype results
        from the expression of an organism's genetic code, its genotype, as well as the
        influence of environmental factors and the interactions between the two.
        When two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same population of
        a species, the species is called polymorphic.

    prokaryotes lack a nucleus
        bacteria and archaea – typically have a single circular chromosome,
        but many variations exist.
flower pot arrangement, purchased from Navlet's, Dec 2011, to study veggie growth. Soil volume about 2 cu.ft.
mfg's website
"Patent 7,634,871" is shown on bottom of box. A review of the patent shows that it only pertains to the features of the box itself, not the process. The patent does references other patents of "self-watering containers".
A DIY version of the earthbox. learned of it from Lisa Robinson at the PHGSC. Also called "InnTainer".
Chapter 2 (page 11) describes the fertilizer.
Please browse related website.
synonym for "latent heat of fusion"
PT1_Q10 Which relationship about enthalpies in an endothermic reaction is correct? ans Hr < Hp.
Correct Answer:
HR < HP  which apparently means:
"When the enthalpy of the reaction is less then enthalpy of products, then the reaction is endothermic"
Epsom Salt
Magnesium Sulfate. Odd stuff. Named after a place in England where is occurs naturally. Soak in it to ease muscle soreness.
When anhydrous and water added, it releases heat! Used to warm hands, food. Have to bake out the water on a stove or the like.
equilibrium constant
An equilibrium constant of 4 means the product of the concentrations of a reaction outputs is 4 times larger than the product of the concentrations of a reaction inputs.
[H2O] means "the # of moles of water molecules", which is proportional to the concentration.

output1.conc * output2.conc [CH3CO2C2H5] [H2O]
---------------------------------- = ---------------------------------- = 4
input1.conc * input2.conc [CH3COOH] [CH3CH2OH]
See sciCalcs for how the above was solved.

"Reaction quotient at chemical equilibrium, a state approached by a dynamic chemical system after sufficient time has elapsed at which its composition has no measurable tendency towards further change." wikip

Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula C2H4 or H2C=CH2. It is a colorless flammable gas with a faint "sweet and musky" odour when pure. It is the simplest alkene (a hydrocarbon with carbon-carbon double bonds). wikip
evolution, Darwin
        all modern species have evolved fm ancestral forms
        natural selection is the main mechanism for change.
    embryos similar.
fossil fuel formation
    low oxygen, aquatic environment
'galvanized' means 'zinc coated'. zinc corrodes before the iron or steel it's protecting. The iron/steel provides the structure. Named (by Volta) after Luigi Galvani who 1st noted "animal electricity".
growing degree-days.
Gdd is the sum of (average day temp (max+min)/2 - 50F), negative values ignored
name tMintMaxflowerlatin namenotes, references
dandelion- - 50 - use to indicate Gdd 50
melons - - ≥1750- -
potato 46- - - Gdd wiki
tomato 5093≥1300Solanum lycopersicumGdd wiki
tomato2 - - 1650-1700-farmer. "to ripen",
Mr Gerike is credited w/ naming hydroponics. Worked at UC Berkeley 1930's. Grew tomato vines 25' tall in backyard w/o inert material. Was secretive about details of his methods. Subsequent researcher, Dennis Hoagland, published nutrient recipes, removed hype from Gericke's papers. Gerike has been called "The Steve Jobs of hydroponics".
Germination is the process by which plants, fungus and bacteria emerge from seeds and spores, and begin growth. Literature often mentions a best temperature range for germination.
See also: how to start tomatoes from seeds. This article contains the following overview:
The approach culled from the 2 parts of the above article give:
  • setup
    • use container with good drainage. Should be dark environ at first (some types need darkness for germination to occur)
    • serial number sterile media. media choices include:
      1. rockwool
      2. half peat,half vermiculite,
    • pre-moisten media
    • warm container and media to 75-80F (damaged if <50F or >95F) better is 65-80F day, 60-65F nights
    • plant seed 1/4" below surface
    • set Gdd sum to 0; start temperature recording.
    • start log book entries. per container (?). photo log?
  • staged treatments
    1. before shoots: dark, keep soil moist, 65-80F day, 60-65F nights
    2. after germination has started, let surface dry a bit between waterings. add light, 65-80F day, 60-65F nights
    3. when 1st "true leaves" appear, add P (from NPK fertilizer #'s. "Starter"). and begin (optional) ~2 week 'cold treatment' regimen:
      • lot of light 9-12 hrs.
      • temp 55F day and night
      • cold extends seedling time 10-14 days
      • shake or wiggle plants to help build strength.
    4. harden seedlings by gradual intro to temps used in final grow area
  • translant to final grow area
  • global buckets
    auto watering video
    greenhouse cover
    Covering over a pot, earthbox, earthTainer, or veggie bed. For heat and retention of carbon dioxide.
        soft model would use translucent drop cloth, 1-2 layer, with hoop battens.
            would need hard end plates for mounting vent(s)
        acrylic model:
            plaster mold for acrylic .
                make male mold w/ router'd 14-18" (half) circles, slatted, sanded to shape.
            250 degrees(?) needed.
            Bell Plastics, 2020 National Avenue, Hayward, CA,
                West on Winton, turn left on Clawiter, rt on National
        could make my own mold.
            plaster molds for plastics
    "salt-producing". 5 related elements:
    fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine.
    All of the halogens form acids when bonded to hydrogen (== 'halides')
    chlorine, bromine and iodine, are often used as disinfectants.
    When halogens react with metals they produce a wide range of salts
    hard water
    water containing 'a lot' of minerals, particularly calcium carbonate (above 70 ppm).
    (kjmagnetics says it's calcium carbonate and magnesium). These minerals form 'scale' in pipes.
    'water softeners' reduce or remove the CA but leave the water too salty for hydroponics.
    According to hydroponic-solution, white stuff on your faucets is a good indicator that you have hard water. Hydro nutrient suppliers have special versions of nutient solutions for hard water.
    really poor water has 300+ ppm of dissolved solids. Likely requires "Reverse Osmosis"
    A term used by Charlie at the local Navlets nursery. It is the process by which a greenhouse plant is gradually introduced to its future (usually outdoor and usually colder) climate. He implied that a rapid change could injure some types of plants.
    Hoagland Solution and how to make it! Of the same genera is nutrient recipe
    Hydrogen (H)
    primary nutrient.
    inert material
    Integrated Pest Management. Seen in UCD materials. They used notion of degree-days to predict maturity (?) of certain pests.
    Iron (Fe)
    micro nutrient. Iron gives green color to plant foliage. Iron is part of the make up of enzymes and aids in protein synthesis, photosynthesis and the metabolic functions of plants. Iron is also required for chlorophyll synthesis.
    isopropyl (alcohol)
    IUPAC name propan-2-ol; commonly called isopropanol CH3CHOHCH3 Isopropyl alcohol is miscible in water, ....

    One of the small scale uses of isopropanol is in cloud chambers. Isopropanol has ideal physical and chemical properties to form a supersaturated layer of vapor which can be condensed by particles of radiation.
    dehydrating, instructables for cloud chamber

    It will dissolve ethyl cellulose, polyvinyl butyral, many oils, alkaloids, gums and natural resins. Unlike ethanol or methanol, isopropyl alcohol is not miscible with salt solutions and can be separated from aqueous solutions by adding a salt such as sodium chloride. The process is colloquially called salting out, and causes concentrated isopropyl alcohol to separate into a distinct layer. isopropyl has a maximum absorbance at 205 nm in an ultraviolet-visible spectrum


    litmus paper
    A water-soluble mixture of different dyes extracted from lichens, absorbed onto filter paper to produce one of the oldest forms of pH indicator, used to test materials for acidity.

    Blue litmus paper turns red under acidic conditions and red litmus paper turns blue (or green) under basic or alkaline conditions, with the color change occurring over the pH range 4.5–8.3 at 25 °C (77 °F).
    Neutral litmus paper is purple.

    An alternative (probably more modern) is 'universal indicator' (fluid or paper). Paper form is better if the solution is dark. universal indicator,wikip

    How to make litmus paper from red cabbage leaves (TODO: there are 2+ types of litmus!) TODO: "universal indicator" solution is modern day replacement for litmus paper. Bill Nye, season 1, show 2(?)

    Boil your red cabbage until the water it is a red-purple color. Strain the red cabbage from the solution. Cut your blotting paper into small strips. Put your blotting paper strips into the solution and leave them there to soak. soak for minutes. really. be patient. Take them out and leave to dry. Your litmus strips are now ready to use!

    18010x I used 1/2 cabbage. Made ~1.4 pints of inky fluid, 2 1-pint jars. I stapled together a bunch of strips of printer paper. Didn't let them SOAK long. Only edges done on most of them. the 0.4 pint solution got much lighter. Did the solution react to the ?acidity +/- of the paper? Does a pint of solution only color so much paper?

    180115: using the 1 pint of still inky solution. papers not stapled. Will drop into jar and let soak LONG time - then dump the solution(?).

    Simon noted (too late) that I could have made several dishes with the cabbage... but I had tossed it. ref c08, p54, item 74.

    Manganese (Mn)
    micro nutrient. Manganese is part of the make up of enzymes and help in photosynthesis and the metabolic functions of plants.
    Magnesium (Ma)
    secondary nutrient. Magnesium occurs in chlorophyll and is also an activator of enzymes.
    CH4, the simplest alkane, principal component of natural gas.
    CO is a combustion byproduct.
    micro nutrients

    One parent article for this entry is nutrient recipe
    moles/liter = moles/dm3. see wikip
    molecular mass
    carbon 12
    acetic acid60, pH 4.7l wikip
    CO2 44
    molecule name conventions
    'ane' ending. means carbons single bonded
    'ene' ending means carbons in the chain are double bonded. vs 'ane'
    Methane (CH4),Butane (C4H10),Acetone(CH3COCH3),Toluene(CH3C6H5), Acetylene(C2H2),Ethyl Alcohol(C2H5OH) were named before IUPAC standardization effort began, ref


    Molybdenum (Mo)
    micro nutrient. Molybdenum is part of the make up of enzymes and aids in the metabolic functions of plant. Molybdenum is also required for nitrogen fixing bacteria
    natural gas
    Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, with up to 20 percent concentration of other hydrocarbons (usually ethane) as well as small amounts of impurities such as carbon dioxide (wiki)
    NFT == (TODO) some kind of inert material.
    One parent article for this entry is nutrient recipe
    Solanaceae is a family of flowering plants that includes a number of important agricultural crops. Many species are toxic plants. Tomatoes and potatoes are nightshades; the leaves of the tomato plant are toxic.
    Nitrogen (N)
    primary nutrient. Nitrogen is important for normal plant development. Nitrogen is a component of amino acids, a protein which include nucleic acids, enzymes, light-harvesting pigment and chlorophyll. Nitrogen promotes plant growth and dense, bright foliage.
    The boiling pt of N2 is 77K
    Nitrogen Fixation
    With 78% of air being N2, you would think it easy for plants to acquire the N needed for amino acids etc but N2 is extremely stable and thus difficult to disassociate. Certain bacteria seem to have taken on the symbiotic role of "fixing N" and they typical produce ammonia (NH3), nitrites (NO2-), and/or nitrates (NO3-) which the plant can further process as needed.
    wiki article on cyanobacteria
    glossary_sci on cyanobacteria
    Nitrous Oxide
    Nitrous oxide, N2O:
        water soluble, fat soluble,
        non-flammable but, when hot, it's an oxidizer like O2
        whipped cream, propelled by N2O, is unstable and will become liquid in 30min.
        Long-term exposure to N2O depletes vitamin B12 levels

    Nitrous oxide is a very common inhalational anesthetic that offers analgesia, anxiolysis, and sometimes amnesia. It’s a colorless, non-flammable gas with a slightly sweet taste.

    Inhalation Dose
    A couple lungfuls is usually adequate to produce effects.
    The average amount used during the course of a session is 1-5 cartridges or 1-5 balloons.
    Onset: seconds
    Positive Effects:  The drug is usually relaxing and somewhat sedating.
      Dissociation; Euphoria; Sensations of floating, body tingling, warmth, and numbness;
      Anxiolysis (anxiety inhibited state);
      Mood lift; Analgesia; Pro-sexual effects; Laughter & giggling; Dream-like state
    Negative Effects:
      Amnesia, Dizziness, Nausea, Vomiting, Headache

    Because N2O is minimally metabolised in humans (with a rate of 0.004%), it retains its potency when exhaled into the room by the patient, and can pose an intoxicating and prolonged exposure hazard to the clinic staff if the room is poorly ventilated.

    Medical grade is used as a pain killer by dentists but is diluted with oxygen. It's also known as "laughing gas" and, by kids, as "noz".

    The nitrous oxide available to the general public for performance enhancement has sulfur dioxide mixed with it to avoid substance abuse.

    The nitrous oxide used as a propellant for whipped cream is thought to be pure (fh).

    Nitrous Oxide, as used in dragsters
    When nitrous oxide is heated to 572 degrees Fahrenheit it breaks down and releases the oxygen into the mixture, and under ideal conditions, provides a substantial boost inpower.

    Nitrous is stored in the bottle in liquid form at about 1000 PSI. When it is released into the intake, it expands into a gas. This causes the temperature to drop considerably, which causes the density to rise. The denser the intake charge is, the more that will fit in the cylinder.

    It just serves as an oxidizer in a racing application.
    dragster company

    nutrient recipe
    AKA "nutrient solution", "nutrient mix" This is the mix of the 17 (or so) chemicals needed to support plant growth. It has evolved since the 1930's Hoagland Solution and the requirements vary somewhat plant to plant and even vary during different parts of the growing season. For example, the needs of the seedling focus on stalk growth while the mature plant is making blossoms. Different needs. The following link gives a simplistic definition while the remainder of this section comes from indoor gardening guide
    This seems good for beginners but short."Another good time to do a complete flush of the plant and growing medium is around 2 weeks before your expected harvest date. That will help prevent the vegetables from tasting like your hydroponic nutrient solution." This comes courtesy of
    CV21600.pdf, copy in veggieTech/hydro/doc/nutrientRecipesCV21600.pdf The relationship between this and the hoagland solution is unknown (by me). It's likely similar. This paper is for production people. assumes well water This material introduced terms now entered elsewhere in the glossary: Primary nutrients: The primary, or macro, nutrients required by plants are: Secondary nutrients: In addition to the primary nutrients listed above, plants also need secondary nutrients: Micro nutrients: Aside for the primary and secondary nutrient requirements, plants also need several micro nutrients:
    'oxidation up' means loss of electrons Redox, wikip, == reduction, loss of + charge, gain -
    see oxidation
    Oxygen (O)
    primary nutrient.

    an 'alkane'. C22H46 for candle wax There isn't a single formula for paraffin as the term seems to apply to a series of similar compounds.

    density                          900 kg/m3
    heat of combustion               42 kJ/g
    latent heat of vaporization   :
    latent heat of fusion (C25H52):  200-220J/g (wikip, syn: "enthalpy")
    The current focus (Nov 2018) is on the smoke from the Paradise fires and the "particulates" fogging the area and threatening the health of those susceptible to PM2.5
        2.5um is about 1000th of an inch, 30 times smaller than human hair.
        The short-term standard (24-hour or daily average) is
        35 micrograms per cubic meter of air (µg/m3) and
        the long-term standard (annual average) is 12 µg/m3.
        find beach sand is about 90um. human hair ~50-70um. pollen,dust,mold ~10um

    I believe an electric field "Ionic Breeze" type device should remove a lot of these particles - though such devices (always?) make ozone (?)


    wikip: A perchlorate is the name for a chemical compound containing the perchlorate ion, Cl O4-. Perchlorates are reactive chemicals first detected in arctic Martian soil by NASA's Phoenix lander that plopped down on Mars over five years ago in May 2008.

    It is likely both of NASA's Viking Mars landers in 1976 measured signatures of perchlorates, in the form of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Other U.S. Mars robots — the Sojourner, Spirit and Opportunity — detected elemental chlorine. Moreover, orbital measurements taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft show that chlorine is globally distributed.

    "Perchlorate is not a common word in the English language; all of us had to go and look it up," Smith said during Spacefest V, a conference held May 24-27 (2017) in Tucson, Ariz. "Perchlorate has become an important component of the soil … and half a percent is a fair amount," he said.

    Smith said microbes on Earth use perchlorate for an energy source. They actually live off highly oxidized chlorine, and in reducing the chlorine down to chloride, they use the energy in that transaction to power themselves.

    "Anybody who is saying they want to go live on the surface of Mars better think about the interaction of perchlorate with the human body," he warned. "At one-half percent, that's a huge amount. Very small amounts are considered toxic. So you'd better have a plan to deal with the poisons on the surface."

    Any humans exploring Mars, Smith said, will find it hard to avoid the finest of dust particles. "It'll get into everything…certainly into your habitat."

    Undeniably, Martian dust devils laden with perchlorates are sure to be devilishly dangerous.

    But Smith also noted that perchlorate is used within the pyrotechnics industry, and ammonium perchlorate is also a component of solid rocket fuel. "So maybe you can mine it as an on-the-spot resource," he said.

    periodic table
    figured out by Mendeleev 1869
    Each row is a "period", ending in (?) an inert element (Group 18, "noble gases")
    Each column is called a Group. member have 'similar behavior'.
    metals on the left. non-metals on the right
    elements towards the right have smaller atomic radii. b/c more protons...
    Some groups have names as well as numbers
     1 alkali metals
     2 alkaline earth metals
    17 halogens
    18 noble gases
    94 elements exist naturally
    seen on CSET215 practice test
    wikip wikip, huge img, interactive
    from the top of the wikipedia article:
    Permaculture is a branch of ecological design and ecological engineering which develops sustainable human settlements and self-maintained agricultural systems modeled from natural ecosystems.
    The core tenets of permaculture are:
    • Take Care of the Earth: Provision for all life systems to continue and multiply. This is the first principle, because without a healthy earth, humans cannot flourish.
    • Take Care of the People: Provision for people to access those resources necessary for their existence.
    • Share the Surplus: Healthy natural systems use outputs from each element to nourish others. We humans can do the same. By governing our own needs, we can set resources aside to further the above principles.
    petrologic characteristics
        crustal plates, oceanic and continental
        thermal fractionation
        magma bodies
    seen on CSET215 practice test
    pH = -log10(mol/liter) hydronium ions, "H+"; XAM p119
    Earth's water is slightly acidic from dissolved CO2.
        wiki on pH
        PH_meter, how to build 1.
    see also XAM p119. and exponential, ln()
    Phenology (wiki) is the study of periodic plant and animal life cycle events and how these are influenced by seasonal and interannual variations in climate.

    Seen in UCD materials. They have a 'model' for many plants, weeds, crops etc predicting "event's in an organism's development" principally using 'degree-days'.
    UCD example  on sweet corn shows it ready for harvesting at a degree-day value of about 1600. Below 50 degrees, it does not develop.

    a chemical compound with the formula C20H14O4 and is often written as "HIn" or "phph" in shorthand notation. Phenolphthalein is often used as an indicator in acid–base titrations. For this application, it turns colorless in acidic solutions and pink in basic solutions.

    Phenolphthalein is slightly soluble in water and usually is dissolved in alcohols for use in experiments. It is a weak acid, which can lose H+ ions in solution. The phenolphthalein molecule is colorless, and the phenolphthalein ion is pink. When a base is added to the phenolphthalein, the molecule ToFrom ions equilibrium shifts to the right, leading to more ionization as H+ ions are removed. wikip vv_titration

    pH meter
    model "eco testr pH 1", mfg Oakton
    This ~$80 meter is accurate to 0.1 pH and is a wonderful jump over litmus paper!
    But it is not simple to use.
    It takes 4 hearing aid batteries. Size 675 works. These are 1.5v and CVS sold me
    8 or ? $8 or so.
    pH meter's manual, in pub/doc/
    HydroFarm's note on ecoTestr pH 1
    • a substance that exhibits the phenomenon of luminescence,
    • Old fashioned term for phosphorus
    Phosphorus (P)
    A chemical element named for its light-emitting behavior, emits light due to chemiluminescence, not phosphorescence.

    Phosphorus, commonly misspelled "Phosphorous", is an essential part of the enzyme responsible for aiding crops to fix light energy. It is a 'primary nutrient'. Nucleic acids carries genetic information and is important in stimulating root development. Phosphorus is an integral part of nucleic acids.

        light-(in)dependent reaction
        chlorophyll A
        Calvin Cycle
    seen on CSET215 practice test
    plastic cement
    mentioned on line. don't see a definition yet.
    says it 'fuses' the plastic, shortening it Testors makes it. Need a ventilated area.
    plastic, melting points
    Different types of plastic have different melting points.
    PVC melts at approximately 175 degrees Celsius (347 degrees Fahrenheit).
    HDPE, recycle symbol "2" melt  between 266F-295F.


    , recycle symbol "5", melts between 320F-406F.
    If plastic impure, the melting point usually reduced.
    plastic, types of
    pith (balls)

    Illusive term. heard/read for years that early electric experiments could levitate charged "pith balls". Pith turns out to be the white stuff found in elderberry plants. But styrofoam seems a readily available substitute. ref c08 p112


    Pollinating a tomato plant in a greenhouse (normal bugs cant get at the plants!) googled: how to pollinate tomato plants in a greenhouse ehow shows the (fe)male parts of flower. Says wind can do it to some degree. he uses small brush (or scissors in the video)

    gardenWeb squash talks about squash needing it too. that some plants dont need it, that blossoms fall off if failure to launch "parthenocarpic" and are able to reproduce without pollination

    vibrate some people vibrate the plant. electric toothbrush, shaver... peppers need pollination.

    green house steps for starting from seeds. uses soil, not hydro (?); gives temps says the freq of vib is important.

    TAP plastic guy says this type of plastic can't be glued to itself - or anything else. He suggested using vinyl sheeting. It dawned on me that _some_ type of plastic must be used for glue bottles!

    The melting point, even for low quality poly, seems to be ~220F (wiki, at bottom)

    A check on the web, however, suggests he might be wrong. The web entries aren't great at defining what type of plastic they're using.

    A web demo showed an iron, set to Wool, used to bind 2 'plastic' sheets (polyethylene?). He used "sticky tape" (double-sided?).

    plastic top
    plastic btm
    He rolled the iron, just the very edge, over the top layer of tape. Several passes. Then removed the top layer of tape. a href="">wikip
    Hank's channel, Crash Course Chemistry #45 made up of 'monomers'. 10's, 100's, 100's of thousands of 'units' long. chains. eg nitro-cellulose
    Potassium (K)
    primary nutrient. Potassium assist in the processes which ensure carbon assimilation and the transport of photosynthates through the plant for storage of sugars and proteins, and growth. Potassium is important for water regulation and intake. Sufficient potassium help plants resist frost, drought and certain diseases.
    Is a nightshade. See book "The Botany of Desire".
    "The potato or, rather, green versions of it contains a natural toxin called solanine. The greenish hue that should warn you away from such spuds is actually chlorophyll, but its presence indicates concentrations of solanine are present in the tuber. " from:
    snopes on green potatoes:
    pressure regulator
    garden hose compatible pressure regulator available at Home Depot. $28 (?). Note that you can apparently DESTROY the device by merely attaching it to a hose and turning on the water! You need to read and follow the instructions.
    web site entry for this product. At ''
    primary nutrients
    The primary, or macro, nutrients required by plants are
    One parent article for this entry is nutrient recipe
    propane, C3H8

    protein synthesis
        amino acids
        eukaryotes = any organism whose cells have a cell nucleus and other organelles
            enclosed within membranes. Eukaryotes can be unicellular or multicellular.
            The defining feature that sets eukaryotic cells apart from prokaryotic cells
            (Bacteria and Archaea) is that they have membrane-bound organelles,
            especially the nucleus, which contains the genetic material enclosed by
            the nuclear membrane.
        nucletide bases (4)
            building blocks of nucleic acids. Five nucleobases—
                adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T),
                and uracil (U)—are called primary or canonical.
                They function as the fundamental units of the genetic code,
                with the bases A, G, C, and T being found in DNA while
                A, G, C, and U are found in RNA. Thymine and uracil are
                identical excepting that T includes a methyl group that U lacks.
        protein synthesis.
    seen on CSET215 practice test
    reaction (types (?))
    seen in CSET215 practice test
    neutralization reaction. Adding exactly the same amt of acid/base to a base/acid.
        The result doesn't have to be pH 7 !  //printed
    redox (?)
    reaction rate
    factors like temp. TODO
    reduction up means gain of electrons Redox, wikip
    relative humidity

    Relative humidity (RH) is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature. Relative humidity depends on temperature and the pressure of the system of interest. It requires less water vapor to attain high relative humidity at low temperatures; more water vapour is required to attain high relative humidity in warm or hot air.

    Read the excellent article in wikip.

    A useful rule of thumb is that the maximum absolute humidity doubles for every 20 F increase in temperature. Thus, the relative humidity will drop by a factor of 2 for each 20 F increase in temperature, assuming conservation of absolute moisture. For example, in the range of normal temperatures, air at 70 F and 50% relative humidity will become saturated if cooled to 50 F.

    40 F air at 80% relative humidity, warmed to 70 F, will have a relative humidity of only 29% and feel dry.

    By comparison, a relative humidity between 40% and 60% is considered healthy and comfortable in comfort controlled environments.

    RO, Reverse Osmosis
    Produced in salivary glands, human saliva is 98 to 99.5% water, but also contains many important substances, including electrolytes, mucus, antibacterial compounds and various enzymes.
    And white blood cells, and epithelial cells (from which DNA can be extracted)
    Saliva buffers acidity in mouth, keeping pH in the range 6.2-7.4
    saltpeter, KNO3
    aka 'niter'. potassium nitrate.
    very soluble. used in gunpowder?
    used in fertilizers (?)
    salt bridge
    in electrochemistry, is a laboratory device used to connect the oxidation and reduction half-cells of a galvanic cell (voltaic cell), a type of electrochemical cell. It maintains electrical neutrality within the internal circuit, preventing the cell from rapidly running its reaction to equilibrium.


    secondary nutrients

    One parent article for this entry is nutrient recipe
    +ve P region, resisitivity region between conductor and insulator, -ve N region.
    antimony boron silicon
    silicates, sil minerals. in far future, sun's energy increase is expected to
    alter silicate minerals such that the atmosphere contains less CO2 ! And plant
    life will falter
    silicate, wikip. Si == Silicon, 4 oxygens.
    silicate minerals, wikip
    Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals made up of silicate groups.
    They are the largest and most important class of rock-forming minerals and
    make up approximately 90 percent of the Earth's crust.
    They are classified based on the structure of their silicate groups,
    which contain different ratios of silicon and oxygen.
    future of eartch, wikip
    electronic tutorials semiconductor, local
    Smart Pots
    defining article can cut the side of the plastic bag and plant 'on the side' !
    Sodium (Na)
    secondary nutrient.
    A soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal. Sodium is an alkali metal.
    Because it has a single electron in its outer shell that it readily donates,
    creating a positively charged ion—the Na+ cation.
    6th most abundant element in earth's crust.
    Sodium was first isolated by Humphry Davy in 1807 by the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide.
    bright spectral 'D' line 589.3nm
    soft water
    see hard water
    specific gravity, in general
    Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the
    density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the ratio of
    the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the
    same given volume. Apparent specific gravity is the ratio of the weight
    of a volume of the substance to the weight of an equal volume of the
    reference substance. The reference substance is nearly always water at
    its densest (4°C) for liquids; for gases it is air at room temperature (25°C).
    Nonetheless, the temperature and pressure must be specified for both the
    sample and the reference. Pressure is nearly always 1 atm (101.325 kPa).
    specific gravity, wikip
    hydrometer, wikip
    specific gravity (of a (lead acid) battery)
     specific gravity falls as the battery discharges.
    Specific_gravity, local
    lead acid, charge level, wikip
    PT1_Q wikip
    pores on the bottoms of leaves (?). accept gases (?)
    close at night to reduce water loss
    seen on CSET 215 practice test
    273.15K and 100kPa(==1 bar), Standard temperature and pressure
    dielectric constant 2.6 (C8H8)n wiki
    Solubility is measured either in grams per 100 g of solvent – g/100g – or number of moles per 1 L of the solution.
    nMoles/1 Liter Liquid
    Styrofoam is a trademarked brand of closed-cell extruded polystyrene foam (XPS), commonly called "Blue Board" manufactured as foam continuous building insulation board used in walls, roofs, and foundations as thermal insulation and water barrier. This material is light blue in color and is owned and manufactured by The Dow Chemical Company.

    In the United States and Canada, the colloquial use of the word styrofoam refers to another material that is usually white in color and made of expanded (not extruded) polystyrene foam (EPS). It is often used in disposable coffee cups and coolers, and as cushioning material in packaging. The trademarked term is used generically although it is a different material from the extruded polystyrene used for Styrofoam insulation.

    The Styrofoam brand polystyrene foam, which is used for craft applications, can be identified by its roughness and the "crunch" it makes when cut. Additionally, it is moderately soluble in many organic solvents, cyanoacrylate, and the propellants and solvents of spray paint.


    Sulphur (S)
    secondary nutrient. Sulphur forms part of two important amino acids which are part of the many building blocks of protein. Sulphur is found in B1 vitamin and several other enzymes.
    condition. from one of the new (dec 2017) 'chem' books. ~ pg 100 (?)
    "Self Watering Container", term seen on the EarthTainer site. heard elsewhere too.
    see uses LONworks!
    exhale CO2 and methane
    A common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the unknown concentration of an identified analyte. Since volume measurements play a key role in titration, it is also known as volumetric analysis. A reagent, called the titrant or titrator is prepared as a standard solution. A known concentration and volume of titrant reacts with a solution of analyte or titrand to determine concentration. The volume of titrant reacted is called titration volume. Gay-Lussac first used titre as a verb, "to determine the concentration of a substance in a sample". burette (which was similar to a graduated cylinder) in 1791
    wikip. good article!
    acid-base titration
    amino acid; there are 20 standard amino acids
    analyte   substance whose quantity is meas'd by titration
    beaker, erlenmeyer flask
    buffer (solution)
    cation, anion
    endpoint (of the reaction)
    equivalence point
    indicator   methyl orange, bromothymol blue
    organic chemistry - having to do w/ carbon based molecules
    pH meter. useful for weak acid - weak base titrations
    salt  ionic compound formed by neutralization reaction of an acid and a base
    sigmoid function.
    titration, types of: acid-base, redox
    titration curve
    See also germination,  tomato_cultivars,
    and see about 'determinate' vs 'indeterminate';

    tomatoville keeps Gdd records:

        Ultra-Early: 1100 heat units (=Gdd)
        Extra-Early: about 1300 heat units
        Early: up to 1500 heat units

      Tomatoes need somewhere above 1300 Gdd to ripen. But remember that ripening is affected by MANY other factors. Some varieties ripen with less Gdd but gardeners report these tomatoes do not taste as good as tomatoes exposed to more heat.

      Temps above 86F, and below 50F are not counted for tomatoes. Here's a rough* guideline:

        1400 Gdd - small fruited, very early varieties produce breakers
        1600 Gdd - medium fruited, early varieties begin to break
        1700 Gdd - usually results in a fair crop for larger-sized early tomatoes
        1750-1800 Gdd - usually results in a very good crop for early tomatoes of all sizes
        1800-2000 Gdd - are the requirements for most mid-season (70-80 day) tomatoes
        2000-2200+ Gdd for later season tomatoes (81-day+)

    Gdd accuracy depends on proper plant nutrition, adequate sun, moisture, lack of disease/pests/damage.

    Always try your best to give your plants full sun (author had 13-16 hrs!). They can get by with 8 hours, but of course better results will be had with more sun per day.

    trophic pyramids
        ecosystems, biomass
    A trophic pyramid is a graphical representation designed to show the biomass or
    bio productivity at each trophic level in a given ecosystem.
    seen on CSET215 practice test
    abbreviation for table spoon. equivalent to 15 ml
    abbreviation for teaspoon. equivalent to 5 ml
    flourescent in UV.
    colorless crystalline compound that is the main nitrogenous breakdown product of protein metabolism in mammals and is excreted in urine.
    valence (shell)
    the max number of electrons in each shell related to the
    principle quantum number, 'n': max = 2 (n^2) //going up as an _area_ expands(?)
    Names like K L M N O P Q relate to X-ray terminology
    The shells are named 's', 'p', 'd', 'f' (then alphabetically (except) j), 'g', 'h'...
    Electrons can occupy higher shells even when lower shells aren't filled.
    Electron Configuration
    Neon's config = "1s^2 2s^2 2p^6";
    wikip, Electron_configuration
    Electrons filling the orbitals don't proceed just by shell #; they are added such that the atom's total energy is kept to the smallest allowable. The 1st shell '1s' is too small to have p, d, or f. Two electrons can fill the 1s orbital. Electrons 3 and 4 will fill s2. The next 6 will fill 2p. The surprise might come when electrons get added to 4s before 3d.
    Pauli Exclusion Principle
    no 2 electrons on an atom can have the same 4 quantum numbers (n,l,m,s)

    water and a small amount of 5%-20% (5% typ) acetic acid. Solutions above 10% require careful handling, as they are corrosive and damaging to the skin. 20% acetic acid vinegar can be used as a herbicide.[

    Vinegar bottles left open can develop cloudy bacteria at the bottom.

    pH 4 (4.7?) // not known if this is spec'd; was mentioned in Yahoo!Answers

    White vinegar is often used as a household cleaning agent. Because it is acidic, it can dissolve mineral deposits from glass, coffee makers, and other smooth surfaces. For most uses, dilution with water is recommended for safety and to avoid damaging the surfaces being cleaned.

    why does water go stale overnight {
        water treatment adds up to 4mg Chlorine/liter
        gases in/out overnight.
        CO2 picked up.
        cold suppresses taste.
    density                          1000 kg/m3 (= 1 'megagram' :-) )
    heat of combustion
    latent heat of vaporization   :
    latent heat of fusion         :  TODO
    water cycle (hydrologic cycle)
    seen on CSET215 practice test
        water table
    water vapor
    typ 1% to 4% at the surface.
    lighter than air.
    Zinc (Zn)
    micro nutrient. Zinc increases the metabolic rate of plants. Zinc deficiencies will cause impaired cell functions. Zinc is also part of the make up of enzymes.