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Project Overview

What is this file: TODO

Phase 1

  1. "Visine". Read up. See reference list
  2. "MyHouse". Apply acquired info in planning changes to 39pw. This serves as a concrete expression of the info read in step 1. Also strengthens case when approaching others.
    A part of this effort is visible in the table here.
  3. "ClimateTalk". Write up. Write some web pages summarizing the work done on 39pw.
  4. "ClimateCoax". Try to move the MyHouse summary exponentially, like chain-mail.

Phase 2, Beyond MyHouse

Status, by region

United Nations summary

75% emissions come from 12 (richest) economies ref02,p14 now wind and sun are 7% of world's total gen. ref02,p28 recurring question (ref02, many places) "what do {oil,NatGas,etc} workers do when their product no longer sold". Applies to Std Oil, Chevron, Valero...
UN "Agriculture is responsible for 80% of global deforestation.
    Climate & environmental impacts of food production must be minimized."

UN "food systems release 29% of global GHGs"
UN "Ag accounts for 70% of freshwater use" Austrailia. 90% citizens think govt not doing enuf. ref02,p46 Brittain (England mostly) Brittain has basically stopped using coal, ref02,p85 Brittain (France & Denmark) "legally bound" to "net-zero" by 2050 ref02,p63 { north sea. 4 wind turbines every 7 days. end goal 174, Hornsea 1 (#2 will be bigger) 2018 brittain had 8 GW (1.3 x germany's). by 2030 30 GW. urgency partly from spread of electric cars. competitive auctions longer blades will have dia 167m ! wind is now 1/4 of B's renewables. price will lower to B'$ 57 per mWhr // B'$ 140 is about 3x wholesale price. B'$ == pounds don't have the batteries to support lots of wind. } California aiming for "net zero" by 2045 Chili considering signing up for "net-zero" by 2050 China is biggest polluter. plan to peak by 2030 but econ worries. more coal req'd output 9.8 Gt (of 31 Gt total/yr). ref02,p30 With the abdication of the US, China has become a world leader. "Belt and Road" where they are teaching other countries how to fix their carbon output. ref02,p46 ref02,p47 { 1/3 of world's wind power now in china Coal has been china's main source but it's reducing. now less than 60 percent building more nuclears. has 47 there's a push to peak at 2025, not 2030 economy slower. 300+ coal plants requested ! shanghai threatened by sea level rise China and India make 70% of coal powered electricity. ref04,p90 Coal also used in steel and cement industries. China 50% of world's coal use. } Europe (as a whole) output 4.9Gt (of 31 Gt total/yr). ref02,p30 France using a lot of nuclear and 'life is good'. France (Brittain & Denmark) "legally bound" to "net-zero" by 2050 ref02,p85 (France isn't even mentioned in several books about climate...) Germany germany's efforts probably made solar less expensive for all. ref02,p14 "wind and solar farms have become cheap enough, in many instances, to outcompete even gas" coal ppl want 2030 targets moved to 2038 ref02,p60 { they mine 'brown coal' (lignite), very dirty. miners asking for 2030 goal to be moved to 2038 germany will subsidize coal areas w/ 44bn$; utilities worried enviro's want 1995 levels x 0.55 by 2038 2/3 of lignite workers are over 45. ?? possible hydrogen plant? carbon price... } India{ ref02,p46 last 3 yrs, has invested more in renewables, lg tax on coal, cheaper solar, 300d/yr sunny. Has said they won't build more coal plants, in part b/c their plants have been so unreliable. ref04,p90 as of 2009, india still had 400m ppl w/o electricity. night lights candles, kerosene. Now have per-house solar panels, $200. $40 solar lanterns. 'Green Power' chapter, p93+ } india Italy ref02,p61{ Puglia Italy. boot. olive trees dying. bacteria climate not root cause - but it is helping the spread } Panama. drought. not enuf water in canal for largest ships. refEcon p38 Portugal. yields down ref02,p61 Spain ref02,p61 { has water shortage. } USA output 5.3Gt (of 31 Gt total/yr). ref02,p30 among young, 85% believe in CC morgan stanley ad for 'green bonds'. ref02,p15, Trump LOOSENED regulations on methane ! ref02,p31 ref02,p32{ 57% americans view CC as "major threat". Democrats 84% chart shows mostly Repub states getting hurt by CC "phase out subsidies for fossil fuels". they exist !! some have idea to tax goods fm countries which aren't trying. aid for zero-emissions electricity in poor countries. - to counter China's support for coal. politicians. dems in coal areas, L Graham, M Gaetz 2 R's support carbon tax climate skepticism is R doctrine USA has a tariff against chinese solar panels (to support USA's businesses) but it results in a net loss of installation jobs. ref04,~p89 }

Sea level rise has passed tipping point so it'll continue to rise !

Bangladesh, 9/16

from @MikeHudema
Bangladesh has been installing 50000 solar systems per month on residences for, on average, the last 100 months (5 million). Population 163 million.
(while US and Canada are still talking about pipelines).

Britain, 9/19

85% of the populace "worried"


from Jude Clemente:
Since California first installed its Renewable Portfolio Standard in 2003, NatGas' share in the power generation mix has actually risen from 47% then to 61% in 2016.
NatGas efficiency generating electricity. (caution: this writer seems pro-oil) Governor Jerry Brown has signed legislation requiring California's utilities to obtain 100 percent of their electricity from zero-carbon sources by the end of 2045 (including 60% renewable energy sources by 2030) California accounts for 38.9% of U.S. solar capacity and 31.7% of solar jobs. (

China 9/16

from @MikeHudema:
produces 2/3 of world's solar panels.
installs a new wind turbine every hour.
Renewables are still only has 20% of china's energy.
doubled its solar capacity last year
outstripping its own solar and wind power targets.
has already exceeded its 2020 goals for solar capacity.
built the world's largest floating solar farm in S China
new goal is 213 GigaWatts of solar power by 2020.
installs enough solar panels every hour of every day to cover.


generates all needed electricity using renewable energy


The Netherlands will cut its 1990 greenhouse-gas emissions level by 95 percent— exceeding the Paris Agreement goals.


generates all needed electricity using renewable energy

USA, in general 9/16

Greta: more Americans worried but < 40% expect to make "major sacrifices". Oil industry is pushing Nat Gas as a "clean alternative" (to coal). coal plants have been closing at a good rate. ref04,~p87 Still talking about new pipelines. There are over 1.47 million solar panels in use across the contiguous 48 states, according to satellite machine learning from researchers at Stanford. Solar energy accounts for 1.6% of total U.S. electricity generation. == 7e7 mTons CO2.

Related Projects

Carbon Capture. Removing CO2 from air
There are apparently (at least 2) methods of removing CO2 from the air. Bill Gates has invested in one effort in Washington State. wikip "Carbon capture and storage"

"A new way to remove CO2 from the atmosphere, Jennifer Wilcox, 7/26/2018 Our planet has a carbon problem -- if we don't start removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, we'll grow hotter, faster. Chemical engineer Jennifer Wilcox previews some amazing technology to scrub carbon from the air, using chemical reactions that capture and reuse CO2 in much the same way trees do ... but at a vast scale. This detailed talk reviews both the promise and the pitfalls.

Carbon Engineering described. liquid-based capture. uses NatGas for heat

Swiss-based ... solid capture. Global Thermostat. compact design.

amazon rain forest uptakes 1.6GtCO2 per year. 5.5 million km2. capture folks want to use the carbon in products, not bury it. DAC 11200 km2. "synthetic forest" 500 times more eff than ?nature need investment, regulations, subsidies, taxes on carbon, R&D $, 0.5% domestic product fm feds or about 100 billion dollars, 200 synth forests, aircraft and airlines about 5% of US solar -> electricity -> water -> electrolysis -> hydrogen -> replacement for nat gas "negative emission" techs shouldn't be seen as permission to continue our present use patterns.

Carbon Sequestration. putting it somewhere
So far in my reading, I see the following possibilities:
  • BAD. buring it in an underground chamber. Expensive. difficult. NIMBY
  • make and sell products containing carbon.
  • get new plants to take up the carbon. Let plants die and naturally fall to the bottom of a lake or get turned over (deeply) in soil.
Cooking without (natural) gas
Product "Sous Vide" is ~$170 and does a remarkable job cooking meet in your choice of pots. The model familiar to the author was made by Anova and is shown and summarized in the following video:

Friends report that the results are perfectly cooked but don't have the familiar seared look. They will throw it on a gas grill for 2 minutes or torch it with a hand-held propane torch.

For outdoor (electric) grilling, the Weber Q1400 grill, $269, seems good but is small compared to modern gas grills. If just added color to a Sous Vide steak, propane torch works well.

Heating a home without (natural) gas
Some options:
  • heat pumpmaybe $3000 ?...have to determine size needed.
  • Solar (thermal) ~90% efficient
  • De'Longhi PACAN120EW-3A Pinguino Whisper Cool Portable Air Conditioner with Real Feel Mode, 450 sq. ft. $403, Amazon, close off house during extreme temps
Heating a hot tub inexpensively
Easiest is just to keep the temperature setting low (80F, or lower). Solar (thermal) ~90% efficient

Glossary, terms, acronyms and notes about such

350 was founded in 2008 by a group of university friends in the United States along with author Bill McKibben, who wrote one of the first books on global warming for the general public, with the goal of building a global climate movement. 350 was named after 350 parts per million — the safe concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The name '350' is the target CO2 concentration. The group 350 seems to be organizing the sept 20 strike.
acid, oceans
acid, rain
natural on smog
aerosols. small, cooling particles emitted by low temp burning. ref02,p30 poor areas Guatemala (?)
(German company) Atmosfair: "A one-way flight from London to New York emits about half a ton of carbon per passenger".

That's 3460 miles. If a person could drive a car between those cities, getting 20miles/gallon, the carbon emitted would be 3460 lbs or over 1.5 US tons. Car-pooling with 2 others would bring that figure down to 1/2 ton per person, the same as the airline figure.

Air travel, overall, makes ? 1/6 ? of the total emissions (for earth). ?? unsure.

Arrhenius, Svante
Swedish scientist and Nobel prize winner in chemistry Svante Arrhenius was the first to calculate the impact of increased carbon dioxide levels on global temperatures, and linked coal production and higher concentrations of atmospheric CO2, all the way back in 1896.

Recognizing the connection between elevated CO2 and higher atmospheric temperatures, Arrhenius used the term ‘hothouse’ to describe the phenomenon, a term closely associated with the now more commonly used ‘greenhouse’ effect.

Azolla (the plant and the event)
Azolla Foundation
CO2 sequestration
Observed Azolla (Bujak study): 32.5 (approximated to 30) tonnes of CO2/ha/yr
Maximum Theoretical Azolla: Productivity: 55 to 60 tonnes of CO2/ha/yr where 'ha'=hectare which is 2.47 acres or 10000 sq meters.

It is a very common native aquatic plant in Tasmania. They form a symbiotic relationship with the cyanobacterium Anabaena azollae, which fixes atmospheric nitrogen, giving the plant access to the essential nutrient. This has led to the plant being dubbed a "super-plant", as it can readily colonise areas of freshwater, and grow at great speed - doubling its biomass every two to three days.

The typical limiting factor on its growth is phosphorus.

Azolla are weeds in many parts of the world, entirely covering some bodies of water. The myth that no mosquito can penetrate the coating of fern to lay its eggs in the water gives the plant its common name "mosquito fern".

6 tonnes per acre of carbon drawdown (1.5 kg/m2/yr). Its ability to use atmospheric nitrogen for growth means that the main limit to its growth is usually the availability of phosphorus: carbon, nitrogen and sulphur being three of the key elements of proteins, and phosphorus being required for DNA, RNA and in energy metabolism. The plant can grow at great speed in favourable conditions – modest warmth and 20 hours of sunlight, both of which were in evidence at the poles during the early Eocene – and can double its biomass over two to three days in such a climate.

6 tons/acre/yr * 640acres / sqMile = 3840 tons/yr/sqMile
Hudson Bay, Canada has an area of 475000 sq miles. = 1.824 GtCO2/year. Sounds impressive but 40 GtCO2/yr would need 22 such lakes.
lake Victoria area is 26564 sq mi.
lake Tahoe area is 191 sq mi.
wikip, the plant (genus)
wikip, Azolla_event 49mya, hot earth.

Beyond Coal
the group (the effort to close coal power plants) is frequently mentioned in ref04,~p87
was trying to make cells and tissue for leaves. (VERY interesting idea but doesn't seem scalable to the CC problem. Look at how much Azolla would be needed...) website
mentioned in bloomberg, p124, as result of decomposition. wikip?
PGE bills charge for NatGas, listing the amount used in 'therms' (100,000 BTU). Outside the US, people use the international standard for energy usage, the Joule, 'J'. EIA, energy explained, units- ...
wikip on 'BTU'
see Emissions Trading
Carbon Brief
Award-winning website dedicated to analysis and fact-checking of energy policy and climate change science, with a focus on the UK. (fgh wasn't that impressed...) twitter
A company in British Columbia, Canada. partially funded by Bill Gates. They say they can draw down a ton of carbon for $100. (fgh: believe I heard that the IPCC said it would take $600)
about Carbon Engineering, BBC article
Energy fuel or energy systems which have no net greenhouse gas emissions or carbon footprint. One class is synthetic fuel (including methane, gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel or ammonia) produced from renewable, sustainable or nuclear energy used to hydrogenate carbon dioxide directly captured from the air (DAC), recycled from power plant flue exhaust gas or derived from carbonic acid in seawater.
carbon dioxide
what makes CO2
carbon offsets
A carbon offset is a reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases made in order to compensate for emissions made elsewhere. Offsets are measured in tonnes of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2e). One tonne of carbon offset represents the reduction of one tonne of carbon dioxide or its equivalent in other greenhouse gases.

There are two markets for carbon offsets. In the larger, compliance market, companies, governments, or other entities buy carbon offsets in order to comply with caps on the total amount of carbon dioxide they are allowed to emit. For instance, an entity could be complying with obligations of Annex 1 Parties under the Kyoto Protocol or of liable entities under the EU Emission Trading Scheme, among others. In 2006, about $5.5 billion of carbon offsets were purchased in the compliance market, representing about 1.6 billion metric tons of CO2e reductions.

In the much smaller, voluntary market, individuals, companies, or governments purchase carbon offsets to mitigate their own greenhouse gas emissions from transportation, electricity use, and other sources. ...

Renewable energy projects are the most common source of carbon offsets.

carbon tax
A carbon tax is a tax levied on the carbon content of fuels (transport & energy sector) and, like carbon emissions trading, is a form of carbon pricing. The term carbon tax is also used to refer to a carbon dioxide equivalent tax, the latter of which is quite similar but can be placed on any type of greenhouse gas or combination of greenhouse gases, emitted by any economic sector.

As of 2018 at least 27 countries and subnational units have implemented carbon taxes. Research shows that carbon taxes effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Economists generally argue that carbon taxes are the most efficient and effective way to curb climate change, with the least adverse effects on the economy.

Carbon Dioxide Removal. Acronym used by IPCC.
cement making
6% of emissions
ref01, pg 70 Causes 6% of global CO2 ref02 capture CO2 where cement is made - then bury the captured CO2 ref02,p84
Center for Negative Carbon Emissions
At Arizona State. group started by Allen Wright around 2004 (?). His devices are sometimes called "mechanical trees" and they absorb CO2 much faster than real trees. Thousands needed to correct atmosphere(?) status. less CO2 increase this yr cuz Coal plants closing. 2018 3.4% increase in CO2 largest CO2 emissions coming from transportation, _airplanes_, cars
2019 article, video
wikip, ASU group
wikip, removal
Climate engineering
Also called "climate intervention"
climate model
the wikip article on GHGs might be a good start in making a model but that hasn't the areas, populations, ...
Climate Restoration
from book "Everything all at Once" pg 300:more thean 1/3 electricity US is fm coal; globally it's 40%". (2016 figures?)
Direct_air_capture, DAC
At the simplest level, the process of composting requires making a heap of wet organic matter (also called green waste), such as leaves, grass, and food scraps, and waiting for the materials to break down into humus after a period of months. However, composting also can take place as a multi-step, closely monitored process with measured inputs of water, air, and carbon- and nitrogen-rich materials. The decomposition process is aided by shredding the plant matter, adding water and ensuring proper aeration by regularly turning the mixture when open piles or "windrows" are used. Earthworms and fungi further break up the material. Bacteria requiring oxygen to function (aerobic bacteria) and fungi manage the chemical process by converting the inputs into heat, carbon dioxide, and ammonium.

Composting is an _AEROBIC_ method (meaning that it requires the presence of air) of decomposing organic solid wastes.

Composting organisms require four equally important ingredients to work effectively:

  • Carbon — for energy; the microbial oxidation of carbon produces the heat, if included at suggested levels.[2] High carbon materials tend to be brown and dry.
  • Nitrogen — to grow and reproduce more organisms to oxidize the carbon. High nitrogen materials tend to be green (or colorful, such as fruits and vegetables) and wet.
  • Oxygen — for oxidizing the carbon, the decomposition process.
  • Water — in the right amounts to maintain activity without causing anaerobic conditions.
wikip on compost
wikip. see methane, CO2
wikip on decomposition
2014 article on 'the money behind the climate denial.... Some changes since 2014:
  • ExxonMobile no longer helps the deniers. It admits that CC is real (ref04,p207
  • some of the bad guys have changed stripes - but some are just hiding better.
Emissions Trading
"puts a price on carbon and creates a market in the right to emit."
"For greenhouse gases, which cause climate change, permit units are often called carbon credits."
tax credits for wind and solar power.
Economist, sept 21 2019, p31
ref04,p86 cap-and-trade bill didn't pass, 2010
wikip, Emissions Trading

Carbon Tax
Paper "Would a Carbon Tax Dividend Help Poor Households?" Author Robert P. Murphy says 'no' b/c poor ppl have to pay larger share of their income for power

Fee and Dividend Approach Dan Miller. Claims
  • 52% less CO2 emissions
  • creates 2.8 million jobs
  • grows GDP by $1.4 trillion
  • save 227000 lives in US
See video in reference #08
ethane C2H6
At standard temperature and pressure, ethane is a colorless, odorless gas. Like many hydrocarbons, ethane is isolated on an industrial scale from NatGas and as a petrochemical by-product of petroleum refining. Its chief use is as feedstock for ethylene production (plastics, eg polyethylene).
Oil company.
In economics, an externality is the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit. Pollution is an example. You want _something_ but its manufacture carries a burden of the associated pollution caused by its construction (shipment etc).
p206 excess fertilizer use p209 Bloomberg. no-till farming. peat bogs mangroves particularly wonderful. borrow their secrets?
Flight Shaming
The meaning is clear but the math might be off. 1.5 tons/passenger on 3840 mi trip.
Slow down airplanes? 1/2 speed is 1/4 the resistive force. Example: slowing from 550 to 440 reduces the speed to 80% of the 550. The engines only need to power at 0.8 * 0.8 = .64 for a fuel reduction of 1-0.64 = 0.36 = 36%. But he flight crew and passengers have to endure a flight time which is 1/0.8 = 1.25 x the original flight time.
GreenHouse Gases
link, local




carbon dioxide 410600y1 117 1641000y 82% concentration originally < 300ppm (280?)
carbon monoxide
208 weeks   0.04 0.033 .208 from cars, trucks using gasoline.
Dissociates quickly, so less important
~1 ppm 0.001 1.122 2.591 by-product of burning of fossil fuels.
80%of NatGas
1.8 ppm
84 10% leaking from nat gas wells is common.
When NatGas burned, its methane becomes CO2. Cows and people emit methane.
nitrous oxide
laughing gas
0.330120 y 300 0.092 0.448 .457 6% wikip, ~from farms. has risen lately but still
low concentrations. "3rd worst GHG".
yrs in atmos: ref04,p120
Sulphur HexaFluoride
TODO? >1000 TODO Has the highest ability to warm atmosphere.
? <23,000 x worse than CO2
Fluorinated Gases,
industry waste
1000yvaries 3% see 'EPA' reference in NatGas entry below. And ref to "Overview of Greenhouse Gases"
see also Azolla (which quickly removed a lot of CO2 49mya)
Green New Deal
(IMHO) Senator Edward Markey and Representative 'AOC' defined the GND as a huge project, much larger than just solving the Global Warming crisis. Some of its features could be added with time. I think it's initial definition will make for a huge fight, possibly keeping it from solving any problems.
Giga-Ton equivalent of CO2 (Giga-Ton is the same as Billion-Ton). Earthlings produce around 40 GtCO2 per year (2019)
Read carefully the entry on GHG, GreenHouse Gases. Especially focus on equivalents

Scary Math
40 GtCO2 is the current annual amount for all sources, not just people.
40 GtCO2 can be represented as 4¤10 tonnes/year '¤' means 'times 10 to the'.
So 4¤10 = 4 * (1 followed by 10 zeros) or 40000000000.
If the yearly amount is 4¤10 tonnes/year and a 'tonne' is a 'metric ton', or 2204 lbs, then the yearly weight of CO2 added is (4 * 2204 = 8816)¤10 lbs/year.
That figure represents ALL the CO2 added to the atmosphere this year from all sources, people, machines, animals, forest fires, factory chimneys, rotting vegetables, furnace exhaust, cars, busses, fireplaces,...
There are about 7 billion people on earth, writable as 7¤9 .
So the average per-person CO2, in pounds/day, is 8816¤10 / 7¤9 which equals (8816/7)¤(10-9) = 1260¤1 = 12600 lbs/day. In tonnes, that would be 12600/2204 = 5.7 tonnes/day. The above presumes (wrongly) that people would be the ONLY cause of CO2. rotting vegetables, burning forests, factory chimneys, NatGas to heat your home etc are also contributing.
The 'Global-warming potential', how much a gas actually causes additional heat to be added to the atmosphere.
heat pump
basically works like an air condition running in reverse. Google 'heat pump cost'.
International Energy Agency, Paris Says "The world is currently not on track to meet the main energy-related components of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), agreed by 193 countries in 2015 --> website. has methane tracker. wikip, IEA agency
Sustainable Development Goals The goals agreed to by 193 countries at the 2015 meeting. Some are:
  • reduce the severe health impacts of air pollution (part of SDG 3)
achieve universal access to energy (SDG 7)
  • tackle climate change (SDG 13, Paris Agreement) (fgh:"tackle" awfully loose... !) IEA's notes on 2015 agreements
  • IER
    Institute for Energy Research ?? had article on carbon tax.
    Industrial Revolution
    (began around 1750)
    Infrared radiation
    Infrared radiation is absorbed by some molecules. molecular vibrations. wikip GHGs
    IPCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    The IPCC asserts that limiting global warming to 1.5°C could avert the most catastrophic effects of climate change. In its recent report, it laid out four means of achieving this — and all of them rely on removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. This is because even if we cut most of our carbon emissions down to zero, emissions from agriculture and air travel would be difficult to eliminate altogether. And since carbon dioxide that’s already in the atmosphere can affect climate for hundreds to thousands of years, the IPCC maintains that carbon dioxide removal (CDR) technologies will be critical to get rid of 100 to 1000 gigatonnes of CO2 this century.

    The IPCC has 'outreach programs' in (at least) several countries.
    IPCC site on twitter
    their doc 'sr15'

    Kyoto Protocol
    an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it.
    "Over the course of a century, methane will trap 34 times as much heat as an equivalent amount of carbon dioxide." It's heat value is 87 times that of CO2 but its lifetime in the atmosphere is much shorter than CO2 so its net effect is 34. (dissociation from UV ?)

    methane is made by vegetation which rots w/o oxygen. refbloom pg 126
    if rotting vegetation has air, the result is CO2.

    IEA table of methane sources

    mining leaks transport.

    methane leaks

    leaks at man made structures

    As 'NOVA Next' (a part of PBS) reported, "it's conceivable that leaked methane from the U.S. oil and gas sector is warming the atmosphere as much as America's 557 coal-fired power plants."
    "Researchers find 5,335 NatGas leaks in District’s aging pipe system" Article "Nearly 6,000 NatGas Leaks Found in Washington, D.C." "" One test in Washington, D.C found a methane concentration at 10 percent (100,000 ppm!) in a telecommunications manhole.

    leaks at fracking or drilling sites


    leaks at methane seeps

    Occurs naturally. That's how methane was discovered ! 2016 report of 'A large increase in U.S. methane emissions'. 30%. "middle of USA". Oklahoma earthquake country?

    other methane emissions

    Composting, plants decaying without oxygen = methane. Plants decaying with oxygen = CO2
    Landfills release it if insufficient oxygen. Some facilities burn the methane.
    Burping cows. farting Republicans.
    methane seeps
    Milankovich Cycles
    describe the collective effects of changes in the Earth's movements on its climate over thousands of years. Some info on 28 of Surviving Global Warming
    natural gas, 'NatGas'
    hydrocarbon gas"="fossil gas", article "Environmental Impacts of Natural Gas" article "What industry won’t tell you about “clean” NatGas"
    The original of the chart at left was copied from a 2016 EPA paper, Overview of Greenhouse Gases. The chart shows concentrations weighted by GWP, the Global Warming potential, so the size of each pie piece represents the threat from that gas. The chart has been edited to divide the original 82% figure for CO2 into its sources, NatGas and coal. The 2:1 relationship, coal to Nat Gas, is from George Monbiot. The white dividing line is very approximate.

    NatGas comes out of the ground usually as 80% methane and 20% ethane. Inevitably some methane is leaked in substantial quantities during extraction and transport. An unmeasured portion of methane leaks from cracks in the ground, unrelated to NatGas activities.

    Methane is a greenhouse gas with a GWP 87 time more potent than that of CO2. The effects are projected over over a 20 year period to account for the typical lifetime of the gas in our atmosphere (UV light will eventually cause changes in the molecule).

    What's missing from the chart is the usable energy extracted from these resources. That would show us that, if the energy supplied presently from coal were to switch over 100% to Nat Gas, what would the chart look like?

    discovery of massive NatGas fields throughout the American Southwest beginning in 1918 (PGE website)

    A writer for, Jude Clemente, claims NatGas is the "clean alternative" (to coal?). " unbiased learning tool for students, teachers, ... government. This site has been developed and is maintained by the Natural Gas Supply Association." ...about the HBO movie GasLand... FASCINATING ! on Shale
    naturalgas shale emissions
    glossary_chemistry entry
    berkeley bans it. kqed sci

    net zero
    wikip, several definitions
    natural gas, shale
    "Shale has created a glut of inexpensive NatGas that has been the main force putting coal plants out of business" ref04,~p87 Economist, sept 21st-27th 2019, p31
    Negative Emissions
    ref02,p30 oh gawd, 'funny money'...
    nitrous oxide, N2O
    chemistry page
    Nitrogen oxides produced during combustion... namely nitric oxide, NO, and nitrogen dioxide, NO2. These gases contribute to the formation of smog and acid rain, as well as affecting tropospheric ozone.
    mark-spect, "gas not clean". asked how dirty. expected something on CO2 and/or methane but article is mainly on NOx.
    when planet's CO2 output exceeds IPCC target value (?)
    Paris Agreement
    A 2016 agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), dealing with greenhouse-gas-emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance. The agreement's language was negotiated by representatives of 196 state parties at the 21st Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC in Le Bourget, near Paris, France, and adopted by consensus on 12 December 2015. As of March 2019, 195 UNFCCC members have signed the agreement, and 186 have become party to it. The Paris Agreement's long-term goal is to keep the increase in global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels; and to limit the increase to 1.5 °C, since this would substantially reduce the risks and effects of climate change.

    Under the Paris Agreement, each country must determine, plan, and regularly report on the contribution that it undertakes to mitigate global warming. No mechanism forces a country to set a specific target by a specific date, but each target should go beyond previously set targets. In June 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump announced his intention to withdraw the United States from the agreement. Under the agreement, the earliest effective date of withdrawal for the U.S. is November 2020, shortly before the end of President Trump's current term. In practice, changes in United States policy that are contrary to the Paris Agreement have already been put in place.

    A means of making a problem gas. CO2 can come from 1. humans, 2.cows, 3.heaters...
    PGE, Pacific Gas and Electric (and my 2018 bills)
    The local power company for northern calif (bay area). General offices in SF. It is an "investor owned utility" !
    January 14, 2019, PG&E announced that it was filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. PGE website
    wikip on PG&E
    power plant, fossil fuel, clean
    Somewhat new company, NetPower (.com), claims their power plant design can make electricity from any "fossil fuel". It captures the bad stuff. Their site seems to talk of investors but I don't see test plants or any kind of schedule etc.
    their website
    power plants, coal
    power plants, natural gas
    performance has 2 components: efficiency and pollution

    "More than 80 percent of NatGas-fired generation in the U.S. comes from NatGas combined-cycle power plants." Combined Cycle Gas Turbines (CCGTs) can have energy conversion rates over 60% at full load, producing "up to 50% more electricity from the same fuel than a traditional simple cycle plant."

    One way to measure the efficiency of a generator or power plant is the heat rate, or the amount of energy required to generate a unit of electricity. Higher heat rates indicate less efficient units, since more fuel is required to produce. The heat rate of our NatGas fleet has continued to fall about 1% per year, while rising or staying flat for other competitive fuels (EIA data here)

    Bloomberg/Pope book says a 'scrubber', added to a (coal?) power plant, removes particulates. Before scrubbers, coal plants were even more deadly.
    power plants, nuclear
    Nuclear could make electricity cheaper, by a lot.
    There used to be just one way of making a nuclear reactor (large scale U238). Now there are options.

    fission U235, large scale:
    present day reactors. US hasn't built in a long while; in fact, there's talk of decommissioning some of the old reactors with few, if any, plans to replace them.

    fission U235, small scale:
    same fuel as current US reactors but totally repackaged to be much safer.

    fission Thorium:
    much safer material than uranium.

    There are 2019 claims "it's almost ready".

    U235 represents 0.7% of the original U238 ore and the process to extract the U235 is expensive. Also, that process is the same as that needed to acquire the material to make an atomic bomb.

    Bill Gates' Terrapower Project And The Traveling Wave Reactor

    ?? a problem? TODO
    reforestation (tree planting)
    It's said that it's futile to conquer CC by planting trees but several countries have projects to do just that. Some of these projects are encouraged by those countries; some efforts are driven by one or more volunteers independently of their governments. Ethiopia (350M), Slovenia(10000), France, Germany,...

    Oregon also has a sizeable effort in play.

    renewable energy
    Energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation, air and water heating/cooling, transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy services.
    ... Based on REN21's 2017 report, renewables contributed 19.3% to humans' global energy consumption and 24.5% to their generation of electricity in 2015 and 2016, respectively.
    Iceland and Norway, generate all their electricity using renewable energy already, and many other countries have the set a goal to reach 100% renewable energy in the future.
    scrubber (power plant)
    only reference seemed to be for removing SO2, not CO2. And these were at coal burning plants. duke-energy

    scrubbing CO2
    Power plants (all? most?) post-process the hot 'smoke' to remove as much CO2 as possible. Power plant CO2 output has been reduced to just 15% of the original output but that still becomes a 60% part of the total CO2-in-atmosphere amount. Research continues on trying to improve this.
    scrubbing CO2
    sequestration, to deep chambers
    Putting the captured CO2 somewhere where it can't get into the atmosphere.
    sequestration, "Soil carbon sequestration"
    The carbon that plants absorb from the atmosphere in photosynthesis becomes part of the soil when they die and decompose. It can remain there for millennia or it can be released quickly depending on climatic conditions and how the soil is managed. Minimal tillage, cover crops, crop rotation and leaving crop residues on the field help soils store more carbon.

    see section 'Soil Carbon Sequestration'
    The following (edited) is from ...
    "Smog, the primary constituent of which is ground level ozone, is formed by a chemical reaction of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and heat from sunlight. As well as creating that familiar smoggy haze commonly found surrounding large cities, particularly in the summer time, smog and ground level ozone can contribute to respiratory problems ... Pollutants ... come from a variety of sources, including vehicles, smokestacks, paints, and solvents. Because the reaction ... requires heat, smog problems are the worst in the summertime." ed: 'summertime' or whenever it's WARMER.

    ? from the new, Trump EPA ? Overall, NatGas is more problem than help (ed)

    solar, DIY
    The best info, IMHO, is from Will Prowse
    solar, Utility Grade
    Utility Grade Solar means ___ what?
    solar farm
    Any large collection of solar energy collectors, usually 'solar panels'. several meanings:
    soot, == 'black carbon'
    the result of low temperature (incomplete) burning (combustion). eg: diesel engines in trucks, machinery. ref04,p47 Guatemalans using wood scraps to cook with. (Gary Mitnick, Kent Moriarity)
    SR15, IPCC report
    Silicon Kingdom Holdings
    SKHL is a global company headquartered in Dublin, Ireland, established jointly with Arizona State University.
    their website
    Lauded by Bill Nye and ?? on Twitter ?
    Sulphur Dioxide, SO2
    Sulphur Hexafluoride, SF6
    Has the highest ability to warm atmosphere. Was used in Nike Air shoes til 2006. see wikip
    TODO eg: ice melting won't stop until CO2 is removed from the atmosphere. Seas will continue rising.
    water vapor
    air can hold 4% more water vapor per degree F. ref02, page 8

    History, timeline

    ref02,p27 glacial period: ice reflective, air dry
    sea 20m higher  TODO
    somehow make the earth more reflective... (ping pong balls...)
    1765 280 ppm. Approximate start of the industrial revolution.
    1824 Fourier
    189x Arrhenius  showed dif between glacial and inter-g periods was CO2
         ref02,p26, heat, early 19th cent
    1900 coal was only fuel. made 2bn tons. today is 20x
    1950-1965 study on ocean CO2 and atmos. found atmos CO2 rising. Roger Revelle
    1965 CO2 320 ppm
    1992 Rio, UNFCCC ref02,p28
    1995 360 ppm. As of 2019, the concentration is rising at 2ppm/yr
    1997 Kyoto (USA didn't attend(?)) // did mayors go to this one ?
    2007 Bali   was the time 'plaNYC' was made for new york city.
    2009 Copenhagen
    2015 Paris . same signers. "well below 2C", try for 1.5
    "replacing everything that burns gas or coal or oil. to
        heat, turn a wheel, drive a generator". cement works
    when did trump drop us out of Paris?  The actual effect delayed to 2020 (?)


    Wikipedia was a source for a lot of the information here. I abbreviate reference to articles with 'wikip'. It saddens me to encounter people, usually school age, who are distrustful of wikip. Perhaps wikip's pages on celebritities are frequently hacked but that just isn't true for real science articles.
    ref# title locationsnotes/links
    ref 01 "Everything all at Once"
    Bill Nye
      Kindle book, Lenovo.
    ref 02 Economist
    Sept 21, 2019
    red folder great! many
    relevant articles
    ref 03 Surviving Global Warming.
    (only read a few chapters)
    not Ofc... about adaptation
    not mitigation
    ref 04 Climate of Hope
    M Bloomberg, Carl Pope
    Office very good.
    please read it
    ref 05 Climate Change is Simple
    David Roberts
    youtube time 17:44
    ref 06 Why I don't care about CChange
    David Saddington
    youtube time 13:11
    ref 07 Climate Change: Fact and Fiction
    Bruce Wielicki
    youtube time 17:22
    ref 08 A simple and smart way to fix climate change
    Dan Miller, October 2014
    youtube time __:__
    ref 10 Terrapower Project And The Traveling Wave Reactor
    Bill Gates is a sponsor
    youtube time __:__
    ref 11 Carbon Engineering, carbon capture
    online Matt McGrath, April 2019
    ref 12 A new way to remove CO2 from the atmosphere
    Jennifer Wilcox, carbon capture
    July 2018
    time 14:15


    cover CCC shopping center parking lots w/ solar panels PGE: what's needed to put panels over a large parking lot? 2 directional pwr kickback for solar(?)

    Slow down airplanes from 550 to 440. on the numerous short-ish flights(?) search for 'Slow down airplanes'

    powering ships w/ ammonia !? ref02,p85
    CONTAIN bovine gases in structures. cover structures w/ panels
    road transport could be electrified, ref02,p14
    don't waste time urging investors to dump fossil-fuel stocks. B Gates
    float solar. wide channel, south of Rio Vista?, 'pond' nr CCR, near outlet of Napa River


    "To get something done, go see your mayor!" (Early in Bloomberg/Pope book)

    EBtimes, Barbara, Twits: papers should run series on converting houses to noGas. write Barb; visit newspaper(s)

    trashCo: prep to take CO2-making appliances(?)

    {_realtors_ know what block of houses ('tract') were made to roughly the same design and time. A small number of such 'tract' houses could be examined to determine the size of the stove area, how the electrical was connected and distributed. eg 'Eichler homes'. Ask Steve! or the woman who represented the seller for 39pw. }

    what to do w/ charcoal? grind and bury in soil? (returning carbon to the soil...).
    Charcoal-based composts(?!), refBloom, p209

    YouTube. "a CC solution that's right under our feet". Asmeret Asefaw Berhe. 13:42 _soil_ is the answer. author a soil scientist. ocean and soil are absorbing 1/2 of CO2. natural ecosystems will be saturated after a while. degradation. more carbon in soil has 2x { all the plants, trees, and in air } plants (decaying in the absence of oxygen) make CO2.

    Stacked Solar. cylinder(?)