```

Glossary
Electric vehicle terms

file: REDSTICK/car/glossary_ev.html

document.write("updated "+document.lastModified+".");

Equations
Energy = Force x Distance  // ref/link: FxDequalsE.html

Force = Mass x Acceleration

HP(force_lbs,v_mph)    = force_lbs x v_mph / 375 //brant pg 152 top
watts(force_lbs,v_mph) = force_lbs x v_mph x 1.99 // 1.99=745.7w/hp / 375

HP(torque_ft_lbs,rpm) = torque_ft_lbs x rpm / 5252

Joules(force_lbs, miles) =     // energy
= (force_lbs * 4.448) x (miles x 1609 m/mile)
= (N)                 x (    meters   )    // force times distance.
== force_lbs x miles   x (1609/4.448=7157)

rpmWheel(mph,diaInches) = (mph * 5280 / 60) / (2Pi x diaInches / 12)
mph x 5280 x 12          mph x 168
= ------------------------ = ------------
2Pi x diaInches x 60       diaInches

overallGearRatio = rpmWheel(evDesiredMph,diaInches) / motorBestRpm

torqueWheel = torqueMotor / overallGearRatio x overall Drivetrain eff

watt-hours(force_lbs, miles) = Joules(force_lbs,miles)/3600
= force_lbs x miles x 7157/3600
= force_lbs x miles x 1.99        // 1.9885

watts(force_lbs,v_mph) = force_lbs x v_mph x 746watts/HP / 375
= force_lbs x v_mph x 1.99

Weight = Mass x GravitationalConstant  // Mass is 'slugs', Wt is lbs

GravitationalConstant = 32.2 ft/sec_squared = 9.81 Meters/sec_squared

Numbers, conversion factors, related crap...
1 amp = 6.24 x 10^18th electrons/second
1 BTU = 1060 Joules.
1 gallon of gas = 12500 BTUs = 130 megaJoules, or 36.1 kwh
1 gallon of gas = 33433.9 watt-hours // ref? dif than 36.1 kwh/gal...

1 horsepower = 745.7 watts
= 550lb lifted 1 ft in 1 sec
= 550 ft-lb/sec = 550 lb, ft/sec ...
= 37.5 lb force at 10mph // or 385 lb force at 1 mph etc.

1 Joule = 1 watt-second = 1 Newton-meter, (Energy)
= 10E7 ergs = .239 calories = kwh/3600000 = wh/3600
= 0.737 ft-lbs force

1 kw / sq meter = incident solar energy.
1 kwh = 3400 BTUs
1 mi = 1609 meters;
25mpg = 5000 BTUs / mile
1 mph = 1609 meters / hr = 1609m/3600sec=0.447  // .447 ^ 2 is .1997
1 mph = 88 ft/sec

1 Newton = 1kg * 9.81 = 21.58 lbs
1 newton = .2248 lbs of force // => 1 force_lb = 4.448 N, google
1 rho = 2 x .646 wikipedia.org/wiki/Drag_%28Physics%29
1 sq meter = sq_ft * 0.0932
1 watt = 1 Joules/sec
= volts * amps
= Newtons * meters/sec
1 watt-hour = 3600 Joules
walking burns 1/8 kwh per mile. whpm=125 !

2.0 volt cell reads 1.75 volts when it's at 80% discharge

====================================================================
\$0.085 per kwh (quote from tech writer on web. US average. 2006/7?)
\$0.10  Ed Ring used this value in 2005. might have been a purposefully
high approximation.
\$0.12 / kwh: current cost of electricity in Calif (?)
====================================================================
typ values used for efficiencies:
90% charging efficiency, LA battery
90% motor efficiency in an EV. this proportion gets to traction.
35% ICE efficiency on gasoline.
42% eff for hydrogen system converting electricity to E motor input. vs 90%
====================================================================

```

# Terms

aerodynamic drag
The force resulting from 'wind resistance'.

accelerometer
TODO

AC induction motors
Designed by N. Tesla, used by all the companies making serious EVs. The control electronics requires some investment in time and money, especially trying to reduce the electrical noise generated by the fast switching of high currents.

AGM
Absorbed Glass Mat. A type of Lead-Acid battery. The acid is not loose inside this battery so, on collision, there isn't the possibility of spraying acid around. AGMs, however, do not have quite the current sourcing capability of the 'flooded lead acid' battery.

Amp
Short for "ampere", a unit of electrical current, 6.24 x 10^18th electrons/second

Amp-hours. (AH)
A big car battery might be labeled "130 AH" suggesting it can store (and supply on demand) 130 amps for an hour or 1 amp for 130 hours.

Aptera
Carlsbad company which makes electric and hybrid "motorcycles", link. The car is said to be available the end of 2008, costing between \$27k and \$30k. It is a 3-wheeler and has a Cd of 0.11 ! \$500 (refundable!) deposit.

Atom chassis
This chassis shows up in a lot of designs. Mark and I ran into a car at the Goldenwest flyin which was built around this. And it had been built in Ashland, Oregon, but now was shifting to the midwest. This chassis also showed up in a You Tube video, trouncing expensive cars like Porches and Ferraris. I've heard it called "Atom". It's made of (nice looking) tubes which are open on the sides. Water would come right off the front tires and soak the mrs.
auto
has 4 wheels and is required, by DOT, to have lots of safety gadgets. Motorcycles, by contrast, have only 2 or 3 wheels and aren't required to have so much gadgetry (read 'weight'). The motorcycle classification probably has a 1500 lb weight limit also.

automaker
a company registered (and approved?) by DOT. Can issue VINs

Avcon plug
Charging system for EVs. Ford. copper conductors. Mentioned in Magna-Charge article.

BMS
Battery Management System.

Lithium batteries, and some other non-Lead Acid batteries, can be easily destroyed if charged too quickly or too much. Some battery types need all batteries within the pack to be equally charged. All these constraints are serious enough to warrant special charging apparatus known as a BMS.

The blog at evconvert Eve discusses which battery types might need BMS.

Brant's book
"Build your own Electric Vehicle", Seth Leitman and Bob Brant, 2009. This is a very good book. The first few chapters are a remarkable history section. Chapter 6+ give the needed physics equations and another section gives a pretty thorough explanation of motors and controllers. Bob Brant wrote a predecessor to this book in '93 or '94.

BTU
British Thermal Unit.
```1 BTU = 1060 Joules.
1 kwh = 3400 BTUs
1 gallon of gas = 12500 BTUs
25mpg is 5000 BTUs / mile
```

Cd
The Coefficient of Drag.

CCA
Cold Cranking Amps. spec of lead-acid battery. number of amps battery can deliver at 32F for 30 seconds.
CTO
Cost To Own. It seems this new acronym is being used by lots more than just electric people. Google it!
deICE
to remove from a car the Internal Combustion Engine

deep cycle battery
Designed to deliver constant voltage down to 20 percent of its capacity, as opposed to the more common form of lead acid battery, a "Starter Battery". See wiki with links to HowStuffWorks.

DOD
Depth of Discharge. percent of what mfg recommends, only a part of what a battery theoretically holds. Apparently the treatment of this recommendation floats a lot. Some people use 50% and others use 80% (on the same battery type). Those who use the larger than recommended value can expect to replace the batteries sooner. There are graphs showing the relationship between DOD and # of cycles the battery will support.

I've read that you'll get 1.5 x cycles out of a battery if you discharge it to 50% rather than 80%. From the evconvert/eve blog/news.

Gorilla says that a 2.0 volt cell reads 1.75 volts when it's at 80% discharge. A 12v battery is composed of 6 such cells, an 8v battery has 4 cells.

donor car
The car which gives up its infernal combustion life that you may convert it to electric.

Doran
A plans-built, 3-wheeler EV. It seems to have a chassis similar to the one being designed in Austin. I suspect the creator of the Doran has passed away. It is mentioned on www.rqriley.com and Gorilla

DOT
Department of Transportation. This department sets safety standards, like: after the year 200x, all new cars must have airbags, blah blah blah.

E-flex
I think this is a GM term which describes the basic design architecture of the upcoming GM "Volt". I believe it means that it's 1. electric and 2. flexible. The flexibility is that a generator feeds batteries which, in turn, "feed" the car.

Efficiency
```typ values used for efficiencies:
90% charging efficiency. a lead-acid battery gives back 90% of what
you put in.
90% motor efficiency in an EV. this proportion gets to traction.
35% ICE efficiency on gasoline.
42% eff for hydrogen system converting electricity to E motor input. vs 90%
see PV Photovoltaic, solar cells...
```

EV
Electric Vehicle.

The term EV is applied to very different levels of electrically powered vehicles (each with an acronym I concocted...):

• SLOW (Save Lots Of Weight). Yes, the first category is light; it's prototype is the golf cart and is generically called the "NEV" for Neighborhood Electric Vehicle. It's limited to 25-35 mph, range 40 miles, \$5000?. Used NEVs appear for sale on EBay and Craigslist. I'm not happy that a search for 'electric vehicle' turns up references to NEVs.
• DC-LA (DC motor, Lead Acid) level, 60 mph, range 30 miles, nominally about \$8000 but testimonials suggest people spend \$20k making these really work. This level has been around for quite a few years now. It's still changing but no longer at a fast rate. Several small dealers sell kits for converting a gas-powered car to electric. These kits are not tied to Lead Acid (LA) batteries but conversions almost always choose the LAs.
• BEST. calculated combination of parts, some high tech, some cheap, some home-made.
• MINO (money-is-no-object), >\$14k high tech batteries, >\$10k AC "induction" motor and controller, >100 mile range, > 100 mph. > \$100,000 (not for typical commuter...) This is the level where the majority of innovation and investment is taking place. There might be some ideas and parts which can be used with some of the older, less expensive systems.
The above taxonomy includes "AC induction motors" in the highest price grouping. There's reason to believe it's about time for this fine motor design to work its way into the middle stream.

Energy density
 Lead Acid 60 w-hrs/kg. x 50%DOD x .57 NiMh 100 w-hrs/kg Li-ion 200 w-hrs/kg Li-whatever MM uses ____ wh/kg

EV-1
GM's 1st attempt. 2 passenger. 1600 lbs of Nickel Metal Hydride. 100miles/charge, top speed 180 mph but governor kept it to 80. The stock EV-1 had LA; optional NiMH. 6 hrs to charge. 220v. 22-24hrs using 110v portable charger which was in the trunk. NiMH chared in 6-8 hrs on 220v. 0-60 in less than 9 seconds.
```18.7 kwh LA, 60 AHrs, 312v, 1310 lbs. 3086 lbs total.
26.4 kwh NiMH, 77 AHrs, 343v, 1147 lbs, 2909 lbs total.
```
See copy of EV-1 website

fps gravitational units
fps gravitational, wiki reference
- SIfps g
force newtons pounds force
density kg/cu meter slugs/cu ft
velocity meters/sec feet/sec
area square meters square feet

Fr
The force associated with rolling resistance, caused principally by the tires. For normal driving conditions, like dry pavement, Fr is usually just the product of the weight of the car times the RRC, Rolling Resistance Coefficient of the tires. RRCs vary from about 0.009 to a more typical value of 0.015. A 3000 lb car with a RRC of 0.010 would have a Fr value of 30 lbs.

Gorilla

A company in Huntington Beach, SoCal. They make small 3 battery "utility vehicles" and they sell plans for the Doran plans-built car.

I encountered an Ebay reference to these people on about Day2 of studying EVs. They were selling the molds to an EV for a large amount of money (100k?). I now (July08) see these same molds mentioned under Miscellaneous items on the Gorilla website.

They mention, and probably sell, a special charging connector (Anderson?)

I ordered the Doran plans from them 7/10/08. \$53 thru Ebay & Paypal.

Apparently the main man is 'Rick' (Rick Doran!?).

HOV
High Occupancy Vehicle (lane of a freeway)

GM Impact
A very good EV put out on a trial run in the 1990's (?). See Brant's book.

GVW
Gross Vehicular Weight.
```on door sticker (?)
can't exceed this when converting a car.
```

horsepower
```horsepower: 550lb lifted 1 ft in 1 sec = 550 ft-lb/sec = 550 lb, ft/sec ...
"550 lbs 1ft/sec"
= 746 watts     // 745.7 W

HP(force_lbs,v_mph) = force_lbs x v_mph / 375 //brant pg 152 top
// "it takes 1 HP to move 37.5 lbs at 10mph" Brant p152
// i think this really says '1 HP pushes a 37.5 force at 10mph' (?)
```

Hub motor
A motor built into the hub of a wheel. Very common in the bicycle community and oftentimes very cheap (\$80 for 250W).

ICE
Internal Combustion Engine

Indy Cycle
```760 lbs. Theoretically capable of 150 mph.
Jamieson DuRette
PO Box 426
Bel Air, MD 21014   indycyclebuilder@aol.com
\$75 for the plans. order 9/3/08
indycyclebuilder@aol.com
photos I stole
his web site
```

Joule
(wiki) 'work done. = newton-meter' = watt-second
```Joule = 1 watt-second = 1 Newton-meter, (Energy)
= 10E7 ergs = .239 calories = kwh/3600000 = wh/3600
= 0.737 ft-lbs force
// Joule(f,dist)
// uses 1 force_lb = 4.448 N  bingo!
Joules(force_lbs, miles) =
= (force_lbs * 4.448) x (miles x 1609 m/mile)
= (N)                 x (    meters   )    // force times distance.
== force_lbs x miles   x (1609/4.448=7157)
1 gallon of gasoline contains the energy of 130 megaJoules, or 36.1 kwh
```

kg
1 kg = 2.2046 lbs

kWh
```kilo-watt hour
walking burns 1/8 kwh per mile. whpm=125 !
cost of electric energy.
\$0.085 per kwh (quote from tech writer on web. US average. 2006/7?)
\$0.10  Ed Ring used this value in 2005. might have been a purposefully
high approximation.
\$0.12 / kwh: current cost of electricity in Calif (?)
1 gallon of gasoline contains the energy of 130 megaJoules, or 36.1 kwh.
```

LSE

Least Squared Error. See local info: link

Li-ion
Lithium Ion batteries, the new rage. Actually I may be sloppy in my references to Lithium batteries as there are at least a half dozen subspecies to the Lithium family.

These new(ish) batteries are still very expensive, perhaps 10x the equivalent cost of Lead-Acid. But equivalent energy Li's weigh 3.3 time less, take less room etc.

LRR
Low Rolling Resistance tires. It's said that they don't stop as well as normal tires. Goodyear Invicta tires were said to be a good tire for an EV but I don't know if they're actually classed an LRR.

Actually, it would seem from the Transportation Research Board's paper that most tires today are striving for LRR so maybe the term is no longer used.

Low Speed Vehicle
a term(?) DMV? A synonym for NEV (?)

MagnaCharge
Charging system for EVs. Inductive connection. Benecia. I've seen it written as "Magne-Charge". Defined in Magna-Charge article.

MEMS
MicroElectroMechanical System. The ST Micro accelerometer is an example of such a device. See also wiki article.

Meter
39.375 inches

motorcycle
has 2 or 3 wheels

NEV
Neighborhood Electric Vehicle. glorified golf cart. These are great in closed communities but are a far cry from a commuter level EV. Oftentimes, ordinances are written to keep NEVs from driving on streets where the posted speed limit is 35mph (45?) or greater.

Newton
```1 Newton= 1kg * 9.81 = 21.58 lbs
google: 1 newton = .2248 lbs of force // => 1 force_lb = 4.448 N
```

nmg

No More Gas. used in Sparrow's name

Pak Trakr
?? commercially available gadget to help monitor battery packs ??

Peukert Effect
See my article on this.

PHEV
"Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle". A PHEV can be powered off the electric grid, not just indirectly by gasoline. There is a conversion kit for Prius to make them PHEV.

PV, Photovoltaic
solar cells.
```Solar power
1 kw / sq meter incident energy.
pointing at sun. having sun unobscured...
20% efficient?
```

polynomial
TODO

range
How many miles can a fully charged car go in typical weather. To calculate the value, divide total battery Watt-Hours by whpm.

projected area
Conceptually this is the cross sectional area of a car; however, I believe there are some subtleties. Lowering a car seems to reduce the drag but, if drag was only a function of the cross section of the metal parts, the drag wouldn't reduce if only the under-car gap was reduced in size. Nevertheless the measurement does not count the open area under the car (J.Harvey).

If we use a system of units called fps gravitational this area is measured in sq.ft. If we use SI units this area must be in units of square meters.

RRC
Rolling Resistance Coefficient. TODO.

RW HP
Rear wheel horsepower.

RC
Reserve Capacity. spec of Lead Acid battery. number of minutes a battery can deliver 25 amps while keeping voltage above 10.5 volts
rolling chassis
Cars on Craigslist are sometimes refered to as a "rolling chassis". It means the seller doesn't view the car as a complete car; instead, it's a usable frame, drivetrain, brakes, wheels etc from which you can add an engine. This is generally for people who want to restore a car, or add a fiberglass body from a kit car manufacturer etc. Sometimes a rolling chassis looks like a whole car; sometimes it just looks like a frame on wheels.

slug
```A slug is a unit of mass. wt in lbs over 32.2 ft/sec_squared.
```

Specially Constructed Vehicle

see sunnev.com

Stopwatch

The stopwatch needed for measuring the decelerating forces on your car should be the type used by athletes. Swimmers, bike racers, runners have stopwatches which display "splits". You start the watch and press a button to show a split; the frozen time shown on the face of the watch is the time you pressed the Split button. The watch however is still running. Pressing the Split button again returns the display to showing the time since the race began.

For the deceleration study, you can start the timer at 60mph, read a split at 55, another split at 50, and so on.

You can borrow such a watch, rather than buying one. But be sure to practice with it before taking measurements in the moving car.

Tango
very narrow, short, electric (hybrid?) vehicle. I believe these were around \$100k. Ecoworld article: 39" wide, 8'5" long and 60" tall.. tandem seating. 600 kw motor (3x the Tesla's). 0-60 in 4.0 secs, quarter mile in 12 seconds. 150 mph top end. Stable in a 1.5G turn. LA range: 40-80, NiMH 80-160, Li: >300 miles. They have several models at a variety of prices. T100 under \$18700, T200 \$39,900, \$1000 refundable deposit.

Tesla
very sporty electric. \$108k photo

Tsuru
Apparently this is a Nissan Sentra converted to electric and currently used in Mexico City (?). See ev World article
units
TODO. SI. until this is written, see fps gravitational units

VIN
Vehicle Identification Number. If you convert a car, it will have already been issued a VIN. The actual VIN is usually stamped at the base of the windshield on the driver's side (where a cop or meter maid can see it). Getting your own VIN for a home built car is said to be difficult; there are apparently only 200 such cars allowed each year in Calif !

volt
a unit of 'electrical pressure'. Electrons without a pressure behind them will sit still. They'll need that pressure to overcome whatever resistance lies in their path.

Volkswagen 1L
Volkswagen's new diesel which gets 100km on 1 liter of diesel. That's over 200 mpg. photo

Volt (GM car)
GM's upcoming electric car. generator and batteries. expected 2010.

watt
```watt = Joules/sec = volts * amps = Newtons * meters/sec

// pg 3 of 4, physics of auto energy consumpt, Koon
watts(force_lbs,v_mph) = force_lbs x v_mph x 746watts/HP / 375
= force_lbs x v_mph x 2
```

watt-hour
```watt-hour = 3600 Joules
gallon of gas=33433.9 watt-hours    // ref? this is dif than 36.1 kwh/gal...

// derived fm horsepower(F,Dist). works in ev.c too
watt-hours(force_lbs, miles) = Joules(force_lbs,miles)/3600
= force_lbs x miles x 7157/3600
= force_lbs x miles x 1.98
```

whpm
watt hours per mile. written several ways: WH/Mile etc. This is "energy / mile" and is useful for determining theoretical range. A curious aspect of this is that it is E/distance whereas our gas-powered world talks of mpg which is distance/E.
```// derived fm horsepower(F,Dist). works in ev.c too
whpm(force_lbs) = watt-hours(force_lbs, 1 miles) = Joules(force_lbs,miles)/3600
= force_lbs x miles x 7157/3600
= force_lbs x 1.98
```

whpm-mpg
```1 gallon = 33434 watt-hours
1 gallon/mile = 33434 watt-hours/mile
1 mile/gallon = 1 / (33434 x whpm) = 1 / 33434  miles/wh
```

White Sticker
Sticker similar to those on hybrid cars, but white for "all electric" whereas the hybrid sticker is yellow. A white sticker means you don't pay bridge tolls and you get to use HOV lanes.

Zilla
A 'Zilla' controller is a high performance, high cost controller which outputs a PWM signal to the motor. They're made up in Corvallis, Oregon, by a man who originally came from the Mountain View area. These controllers are used by the electric dragster makers.