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 Conversions using Lead Acid batteries

 Simple arithmetic generates a warning.

you take a normal (heavy) american car and remove about 600 lbs of 
engine and parts supporting internal combustion (muffler, radiator,
gas tank...). You then add a 100 lb electric motor and 1000 lbs of
lead acid batteries. 
 BeforeLead AcidNotes
pollution bad best  
Weight 3500 4000  
Stored energy 433 kWh 20-24 kWh ~ 18 times less energy in EV.
Engine Efficiency 35% 90% frequently quoted values.
Delivery Efficiency 100% .66x.9 .66 is Peukert Effect).
refueling time 10 minutes hours  
dollars per mile .09 to .16 .01 to .04 see Costs section below
range 350 miles 35 miles  
prefered driving freeway streets  


Note the ratio in stored energy. 433 vs 24. 18:1
relative efficiencies:
    The original car's efficiency was 0.35, further impacted by
    aerodynamics. See link.
    efficiency: 35%

    The EV's efficiency is the product of:
    .90     motor efficiency
    .66     Peukert Effect for Lead Acid batteries
    times roughly the same drag factors as applied to the 'Before' car.
    efficiency: 60%

    net gain in efficiency of .6 / .35 = 1.7

So the stored energy of the EV can be treated as nominal value (20-24 kWh)
times 1.7 to compare to the Before car:

    433 kWh / (24 x 1.7) = 10.6

So the ratio of 350 miles to 35 miles ranges seems about right.

A likely reaction to the above is to mandate that the EV be driven 
slowly. This mitigates the Peukert Effect some and avoids the 
nonlinearities of the aerodynamic effects. Thus the above notes
'prefered driving is streets for the EV'.


The choice of LA (lead acid) has an interesting and pervasive influence on the above. Suppose you could afford $10k to $15k in Lithium batteries, the vehicle weight goes down and/or the stored energy can go up by as much as 3.3.


direct costs. no maintenance. no battery replacement. no rebates.
ICE; 2.25 to $4/gallon and 24 mpg.
electric bill business.