Conversions using Lead Acid batteries
Simple arithmetic generates a warning.
you take a normal (heavy) american car and remove about 600 lbs of
engine and parts supporting internal combustion (muffler, radiator,
gas tank...). You then add a 100 lb electric motor and 1000 lbs of
lead acid batteries.
| ||Before||Lead Acid||Notes
|pollution ||bad ||best ||
|Weight ||3500 ||4000 ||
||~ 18 times less energy in EV.
|Engine Efficiency ||35% ||90% ||
frequently quoted values.
|Delivery Efficiency ||100% ||.66x.9 ||
.66 is Peukert Effect).
|refueling time ||10 minutes ||hours ||
|dollars per mile ||.09 to .16 ||.01 to .04||
see Costs section below
|range ||350 miles ||35 miles ||
|prefered driving ||freeway ||streets ||
Note the ratio in stored energy. 433 vs 24. 18:1
The original car's efficiency was 0.35, further impacted by
aerodynamics. See link.
The EV's efficiency is the product of:
.90 motor efficiency
.66 Peukert Effect for Lead Acid batteries
times roughly the same drag factors as applied to the 'Before' car.
net gain in efficiency of .6 / .35 = 1.7
So the stored energy of the EV can be treated as nominal value (20-24 kWh)
times 1.7 to compare to the Before car:
433 kWh / (24 x 1.7) = 10.6
So the ratio of 350 miles to 35 miles ranges seems about right.
A likely reaction to the above is to mandate that the EV be driven
slowly. This mitigates the Peukert Effect some and avoids the
nonlinearities of the aerodynamic effects. Thus the above notes
'prefered driving is streets for the EV'.
The choice of LA (lead acid) has an interesting and pervasive
influence on the above. Suppose you could afford $10k to $15k in
Lithium batteries, the vehicle weight goes down and/or the stored
energy can go up by as much as 3.3.
- if converting american car. light Li, full Li
- lighter chassis, narrow.
- even lighter. cost goes up as total weight.
direct costs. no maintenance. no battery replacement. no rebates.
ICE; 2.25 to $4/gallon and 24 mpg.
electric bill business.